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Avoidance. Ch 15. Avoidance Contingency. Before: Sid will hear a loud tone in 3 sec. Behavior: Sid straightens up. After: Sid won’t hear a loud tone in 3 sec. Avoidance Contingency. Before: Sid will hear a click immediately. Behavior: Sid maintains an erect posture. After:

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slide2

Avoidance Contingency

Before:

Sid will hear a loud tone in 3 sec

Behavior:

Sid straightens up

After:

Sid won’t hear a loud tone in 3 sec

slide3

Avoidance Contingency

Before:

Sid will hear a click immediately

Behavior:

Sid maintains an erect posture.

After:

Sid won’t hear a click immediately

slide4

Avoidance Contingency

Before:

You will have an accident soon

Behavior:

You drive carefully

After:

You won’t have an accident soon

avoidance contingency
Avoidance Contingency
  • The immediate, response-contingent prevention of an aversive condition resulting in an increased frequency of that response
slide6

Avoidance Contingency

Before:

You will soon stumble and fall

Behavior:

You walk perfectly

After:

You won’t soon stumble and fall

avoidance of an aversive event
Avoidance of an Aversive Event
  • Example: overcorrection following training on eye contact…
  • Try using reinforcers first
  • Meet ethical standards
slide8

Avoidance of an Aversive Event

Before:

Jimmy will have to overcorrect in 2 sec

Behavior:

Jimmy looks at the instructor

After:

Jimmy won’t have to overcorrect in 2 sec

avoidance of loss contingency
Avoidance of Loss Contingency
  • The immediate, response-contingent prevention of loss of a reinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that response.
slide10

Avoidance of Time-Out

Before:

The child will soon have to leave the classroom for 3 minutes

Behavior:

The child works hard

After:

The child won’t soon have to leave the classroom for 3 minutes

avoidance of reprimands
Avoidance of Reprimands
  • Reprimands are specific
  • BE careful about the dead man…
  • Interpretation of contingencies
slide12

Punishment???>>WRONG

Before:

Joyce receives no reprimands

Behavior:

Joyce goofs off

After:

Joyce receives a reprimand

goofs off
Goofs off
  • Large response class
  • Does not pass dead man’s test
slide14

Avoidance Contingency

Before:

Joyce will soon receive a reprimand

Behavior:

Joyce studies

After:

Joyce won’t receive a reprimand soon

escape vs avoidance
Escape vs. Avoidance
  • Prevention vs. removal
  • Avoidance: the response prevents an aversive condition from being received
  • Escape: the response causes an aversive condition to be removed
slide18

Avoidance following escape

Escape

Before:

Taste of hot sauce

After:

Reduce taste of hot sauce

Behavior:

Drink water, cough

After:

You will not have hot sauce soon

Before:

You will soon have hot sauce

Behavior:

“Please, no hot sauce”

Avoidance

slide19

Cued Avoidance Contingency

Before:

Buzzer is on

After:

Buzzer is off

Escape

Behavior:

Rat presses lever

Before:

Shock will come on in 3 sec

After:

Shock won’t come on in 3 sec

Avoidance

slide20

Establish a buzzer as a

learned aversive condition

buzzer

shock

No buzzer

No shock

buzzer
Buzzer
  • The neutral buzzer becomes a warning stimulus through use of the pairing procedure
  • The pairing procedure brings into play the value altering principle
slide22

Continuous Response Avoidance

Before:

Sid will hear a click immediately

Behavior:

Sid maintains correct posture

After:

Sid won’t hear a click immediately

slide23

Noncued Avoidance

Before:

Shock will come on in twenty seconds

Behavior:

Rat presses the lever

After:

Shock will not come on in twenty seconds

warning stimulus vs discriminative stimulus
Warning Stimulus vs. Discriminative Stimulus
  • Warning stimulus
    • A stimulus that precedes an aversive condition and thus becomes a learned aversive stimulus
  • Discriminative stimulus
    • A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced
slide27

Before

(Warning stimulus)

buzzer

After

Buzzer is off

Escape

Behavior

Rat presses lever

Sdee

Light is on

Before

Shock will come on in 3 sec

After

Shock won’t come on in 3 sec

Avoidance

Extinction

Before

(Warning stimulus)

buzzer

After

Buzzer is on

Behavior

Rat presses lever

Sdelta

Light is off

Before

Shock will come on in 3 sec

After

Shock will come on in 3 sec

Extinction