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COLLISION AVOIDANCE. A Different Perspective. What Different Perspective?. No Boring Statistics ! No Boring Discussion on the Limitations of the Human Eye ! No “How to Scan for Traffic” Sermon . The Goals. Define the Problem Offer Solutions. BUT FIRST . . .

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collision avoidance

COLLISION AVOIDANCE

A Different Perspective

what different perspective
What Different Perspective?
  • No Boring Statistics !
  • No Boring Discussion on the Limitations of the Human Eye !
  • No “How to Scan for Traffic” Sermon
the goals
The Goals
  • Define the Problem
  • Offer Solutions
but first

BUT FIRST . . .

. . . a little review !

the holy grail
The Holy Grail

FAR 91 . 113

. . . Vigilance shall be maintained by each person operating an aircraft so as to see and avoid other aircraft.

the challenge
THE CHALLENGE
  • As the National Airspace System becomes increasingly complex, the threat of mid-air collisions involving general aviation recreational aircraft will increase !
  • Mid-air collisions usually involve fatalities - there are no fender-benders in the air !
interesting statistics
Interesting Statistics !

1991 - 1996

79 Mid-air collisions involving general aviation aircraft !

does not include
DOES NOT INCLUDE -
  • FAR Part 121 / 135 Aircraft
  • Military Aircraft
  • Public Use Aircraft
safer skies a focused agenda
SAFER SKIESA Focused Agenda
  • Pilot Judgment & Decision-making
  • Loss of Aircraft Control
  • Weather Factors
  • Survivability
  • Collision Avoidance
interesting human limitations
INTERESTINGHUMAN LIMITATIONS
  • Empty-Field Myopia
  • Blind Spots
  • Fixation / Distractions
what does all of this mean
What does all of this mean ?
  • Because of physical limitations and the increasingly complex nature of our airspace system, the potential for a mid-air collision is very real and will remain a serious threat to general aviation safety !
the strategy
THE STRATEGY !
  • WHEN are mid-air collisions most likely to occur ?
  • WHERE is the potential for a mid- air collision the greatest ?
  • WHAT can the pilot do to prevent or minimize this threat ?
slide16
WHEN ?
  • VFR WEATHER
  • BELOW 3,000 FEET AGL
  • WITHIN 10 MILES OF DEPARTURE AIRPORT
  • WEEKENDS
where
WHERE ?
  • WITHIN 10 MILES OF NON-TOWER AIRPORTS
  • TRANSITION TO/FROM THE TRAFFIC PATTERN
  • PRIMARILY IN THE TRAFFIC PATTERN !
everything you always wanted to know about the traffic pattern but
Everything You Always Wanted to Know About the Traffic Pattern, but . . .
  • FAR 91 . 113
  • FAR 91 . 126
  • FAR 91 . 127
  • AIM
far 91 126
FAR 91 . 126

When approaching to land at an airport without an operating control tower . . . each pilot of an airplane must make all turns of that airplane to the left [ unless otherwise designated ].

far 91 127
FAR 91 . 127

When operating in the vicinity of an airport in Class E airspace, comply with FAR 91.126

furthermore
Furthermore . . .

Aeronautical Information Manual

Chapter 4 Section 3

Airport Operations

FAA Advisory Circular 91-66A

Recommended Standard Traffic Patterns and Practices For Operations At Airports Without Operating Control Towers

confusing
CONFUSING ?

You Bet !

survival strategies the what
SURVIVAL STRATEGIESThe “WHAT”

Know where the traffic is !

Airports

Victor Airways

MTRs

survival strategies the sequel
SURVIVAL STRATEGIESThe Sequel !

Know where the potential for conflict is the greatest !

Traffic Pattern

(Specifically Final Approach)

the traffic pattern
The TRAFFICPattern !
  • Downwind Leg - 2%
  • Base Leg - 18%
  • Final Approach - 80%
f usta ll
(F)USTALL
  • Look out - and LOOK OUT!
  • Where & When to ESPECIALLY look?
  • Constantly checking for traffic should be a habit - a way of life. Without it you may not have a life…!
slide27

Entry

Downwind

Base

Final

Critical ‘Check For Traffic’ Points

survival strategies part three
SURVIVAL STRATEGIESPart Three

RADIOS -

use them or lose them !

Report positions frequently, and accurately, when operating in the vicinity of a non-tower airport.

survival strategies the conclusion
SURVIVAL STRATEGIESThe Conclusion

“See and Avoid” is more than a regulation,

It is an Attitude !

it s all up to you
It’s all up to you!
  • Be aware - responsibility for mid-air collision avoidance is in YOUR hands!
  • ‘ SEE AND BE SEEN’!
  • Check your attitude - no-one is invulnerable.

Thanks for listening - any questions…?

Lou Frank