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Automated Container Terminals

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    1. Automated Container Terminals Design, Simulation, and Evaluation of Automated Container Terminals Bryan McCarty Nitin Thadani 2nd July 2002

    6. Automated Container Terminal Layout

    7. Types of handling systems Automated Guidance Vehicles (AGV) Linear Motor Conveyance System (LMCS) Overhead Grid Rail System (GR) High-Rise Automated Storage and Retrieval Structure (AS/RS)

    8. Automated Guidance Vehicles (AGV) A Driverless industrial truck Steerable, wheeled vehicle driven by storage batteries. Follows a predefined path. Path may be simple or complex. There are various types of systems Laser control, Wire control, Electomagnetic, Camera etc.

    9. Linear Motor Conveyance System (LMCS) Identical to that of the AGV-ACT system except paths are pre-built guide ways or conveyors AGVs replaced with shuttles that move on the linear motors conveyance system. The shuttles can be considered as AGVs moving on a fixed path

    10. Overhead Grid Rail System (GR) A fixed grid structure overhead Container carriers move along the rail structure Similar to automated overhead cranes Each GR unit limited to one operation at a time

    11. High-Rise Automated Storage and Retrieval Structure (AS/RS) An automated high rise shelving system uses a rigid rack structure to form a free standing unit. Dimensions of the carrier selected such that they can easily accommodate standardized containers. A computer controlled platform moves the carriers vertically/horizontally in the lift shaft.

    12. Simulation Assumptions The ACT will service 1 ship capable of 8000 Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (TEU) every 24 hours loaded to 85% capacity. Containers will arrive 60% by truck & 40% by rail Export container arrival will be 20% 2 days early, 50% 1 day early, and 30% same day Import container retrieval will be 50% same day, 30% next day, and 20% 2 days later Delivery trucks and trains will operate on 24 hour cycles

    13. Criteria for Evaluation Throughput number of moves/hour/quay crane Throughput per Acre throughput/acre of land Ship Turnaround Time hours to unload/load Truck Turnaround Time hours from gate in/out

    14. Criteria for Evaluation Gate Utilization percent of time gate is servicing in/out traffic Container Dwell Time average hours containers stored onsite Idle Rate of Equipment percent of time equipment is idle Average Cost per Container Location, equipment, and labor costs

    15. Baseline Data for Comparison Throughput Average capacity of conventional terminals is 28 moves/hour Average Cost per Container ACC in conventional terminals is $140-$200

    16. Simulated Performance Analysis

    17. Conclusions Utilizing an Automated Container Terminal (ACT) can increase the average throughput by 50% Utilizing an ACT can reduce the average cost per container by more than 50% Throughput per terminal acre is highest for the AS/AR system. This system will become more attractive as cost of land increases.