1. Automated Container Terminals Design, Simulation, and Evaluation of Automated Container Terminals
2nd July 2002
6. Automated Container Terminal Layout
7. Types of handling systems Automated Guidance Vehicles (AGV)
Linear Motor Conveyance System (LMCS)
Overhead Grid Rail System (GR)
High-Rise Automated Storage and Retrieval Structure (AS/RS)
8. Automated Guidance Vehicles (AGV) A Driverless industrial truck
Steerable, wheeled vehicle driven by storage batteries.
Follows a predefined path.
Path may be simple or complex.
There are various types of systems Laser control, Wire control, Electomagnetic, Camera etc.
9. Linear Motor Conveyance System (LMCS) Identical to that of the AGV-ACT system except paths are pre-built guide ways or conveyors
AGVs replaced with shuttles that move on the linear motors conveyance system.
The shuttles can be considered as AGVs moving on a fixed path
10. Overhead Grid Rail System (GR) A fixed grid structure overhead
Container carriers move along the rail structure
Similar to automated overhead cranes
Each GR unit limited to one operation at a time
11. High-Rise Automated Storage and Retrieval Structure (AS/RS) An automated high rise shelving system uses a rigid rack structure to form a free standing unit.
Dimensions of the carrier selected such that they can easily accommodate standardized containers.
A computer controlled platform moves the carriers vertically/horizontally in the lift shaft.
12. Simulation Assumptions The ACT will service 1 ship capable of 8000 Twenty-foot Equivalent Units (TEU) every 24 hours loaded to 85% capacity.
Containers will arrive 60% by truck & 40% by rail
Export container arrival will be 20% 2 days early, 50% 1 day early, and 30% same day
Import container retrieval will be 50% same day, 30% next day, and 20% 2 days later
Delivery trucks and trains will operate on 24 hour cycles
13. Criteria for Evaluation Throughput
number of moves/hour/quay crane
Throughput per Acre
throughput/acre of land
Ship Turnaround Time
hours to unload/load
Truck Turnaround Time
hours from gate in/out
14. Criteria for Evaluation Gate Utilization
percent of time gate is servicing in/out traffic
Container Dwell Time
average hours containers stored onsite
Idle Rate of Equipment
percent of time equipment is idle
Average Cost per Container
Location, equipment, and labor costs
15. Baseline Data for Comparison Throughput
Average capacity of conventional terminals is 28 moves/hour
Average Cost per Container
ACC in conventional terminals is $140-$200
16. Simulated Performance Analysis
17. Conclusions Utilizing an Automated Container Terminal (ACT) can increase the average throughput by 50%
Utilizing an ACT can reduce the average cost per container by more than 50%
Throughput per terminal acre is highest for the AS/AR system. This system will become more attractive as cost of land increases.