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Applying the Rules to Environmental Science: Biogeochemical Cycles. Earth: Matter does not come and go. So… matter is constantly recycled on Earth. Earth is a closed system to matter. Biogeochemical Cycles: Reservoirs & Pathways. Atmosphere. Biosphere. Lithosphere. Hydrosphere.

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Applying the Rules to Environmental Science: Biogeochemical Cycles


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earth matter does not come and go
Earth:Matter does not come and go

So…

matter is constantly recycled on Earth

Earth is a

closed

system

to matter

biogeochemical cycles reservoirs pathways
Biogeochemical Cycles:Reservoirs & Pathways

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

some major cycles of matter
Some Major Cycles of Matter
  • Water Cycle
  • Rock Cycle
  • Chemical Cycles
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Phosphorous
    • Sulfur
carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

carbon cycle reservoirs
Carbon Cycle: Reservoirs

Atmosphere

1x

(= 7.3x1017 grams

carbon)

Biosphere

3x

55x

35,000x

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

carbon cycle7

Respiration& Decay

Photosynthesis

Carbon Cycle

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

carbon transfer biosphere atmosphere
Carbon Transfer:Biosphere Atmosphere

Photosynthesis(Atmosphere to Biosphere)

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight --> Sugar + Oxygen

Respiration(Biosphere to Atmosphere)

Sugar + Oxygen --> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

carbon cycle9

Respiration& Decay

Photosynthesis

Dissolution

Weathering

& Volcanism

Exsolution

Burial &

Lithification

Photosynthesis

Burial &

Lithification

Carbon Cycle

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

carbon cycle10

Deforestation:

Decrease Photosynthesis

Increase Respiration

Burning fossil fuels:

Increased combustion

Human

Impacts

Carbon Cycle

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Net Effect:

Increase in Carbon

in Atmosphere

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

atmospheric carbon dioxide
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide

northern

winter

northern

summer

nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle

Atmosphere

Denitification:

bacteria

Biosphere

  • Nitrogen fixation:
  • bacteria
  • lightning

Absorption

Waste &Decomposition

Erosion

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

nitrogen cycle15

Human

Impacts

Nitrogen Cycle

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Net Effect:

Increase in Nitrogen

in water & soil

  • Nitrogen fixation:
  • industrial (fertilizer)
  • combustion

Increased Erosion

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

phosphorous cycle
Phosphorous Cycle

Never enters the atmosphere

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Absorption

Waste &Decomposition

Weathering & Erosion

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

Absorption

Sedimentation

phosphorous cycle17

Human

Impacts

Phosphorous Cycle

Biosphere

Net Effect:

Increase in phosphorous in water &

“algal blooms”; Depletion in soils

Mining, use (fertilizer, detergent, etc.)

& increased runoff

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

More Phos. for organisms

sulfur cycle
Sulfur Cycle

Bacteria

Absorption

Atmosphere

Bacteria

Release

Biosphere

Volcanoes

& Weathering

Absorption

Precipitation

Waste &Decomposition

Weathering

“Evaporation”

Sedimentation

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

Absorption

Deep Sea Vents

sulfur cycle21

Human

Impacts

Sulfur Cycle

Atmosphere

Biosphere

Net Effect:

Increase in atmosphere (health effects) and acid rain

Precipitation”

Acid Rain

Burning

Fossil Fuels

Lithosphere

Hydrosphere

earth earth constantly gains loses energy
Earth:Earth constantly gains & loses energy

Heat

Earth is a

Open

System

to Energy

Sunlight

slide24
“Life is a struggle of an immense number of organisms, weighing next to nothing, for a small amount of energy.”
producers autotrophs
Producers( Autotrophs)

Energy enters the system

Tall grass prairie

producers
Producers

Chlorophyll

Photosynthesis

Carbon Dioxide + Water + Sunlight --> Sugar + Oxygen

producers27
Producers

Chemosynthesis

Hydrogen Sulfide + Carbon Dioxide + Water + Oxygen

+ Geothermal Heat --> Sugar + Sulfuric Acid

consumers heterotrophs
Consumers --> Heterotrophs

Primary Consumers - eat producers

(Herbivores)

Secondary Consumers - eat primary consumers

(Carnivores)

Tertiary Consumers - eat secondary consumers

(Carnivores & Omnivores)

Decomposers - break down dead organisms

Called “Trophic” (Feeding) Levels

Represent the flow of energy (food)

called trophic feeding levels represent the flow of energy food
Called “Trophic” (Feeding) LevelsRepresent the flow of energy (food)

Sun

Flow of Energy

Primary

Consumer

Secondary

Consumer

Tertiary

Consumer

Producer

forms a food chain
Forms aFood Chain

What happens if…

we kill off all the mice?

food webs
Food Webs

What happens if…

we kill off all the

crab eater seals?

Food webs are more stable than food chains.

food webs32
Food Webs

What happens if…

we kill off all the

crab eater seals?

Food webs are more stable than food chains.

lessons
Lessons

Food webs are more stable than food chains

The produces are the key to the entire food web

Life is rough at the top

energy trophic levels

2nd Law of Thermodynamics

Energy is lost during conversion

Energy & “Trophic” Levels

Sun

Flow of Energy

Primary

Consumer

Secondary

Consumer

Tertiary

Consumer

Producer

1000units

900

lost

100units

90

lost

10units

9

lost

1units

About 90% loss each step

energy units measured as biomass

Shown as a

Trophic Pyramid

Tertiary Consumers

Secondary Consumers

Primary Consumers

Producers

“Energy Units” Measured asBiomass
energy units measured as biomass37

Tertiary Consumers

Secondary Consumers

Primary Consumers

Producers

“Energy Units” Measured asBiomass

Energy captured and turned into biomass by all producers is called Net Primary Productivity

why does diet mater
Why does diet mater?

If each person required 10 g/m2 food per day:

This ecosystem could feed:

1 person on all carnivores

4 people on herbivores

80 people on plants

bioconcentration up the trophic pyramid
Bioconcentrationup the Trophic Pyramid

Energy degrades…

but matter does not

Toxin

(e.g. heavy metals)

example ddt
Example:DDT

High concentrations of DDT weakens egg shells in fish-eating birds & chicks die