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An integrated value chain of onion and shallot in west africa : strengths and weaknesses. SECOND WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE WEEK ***************. Albert Rouamba Sanjeet Kumar Paul Gniffke Peter Hanson. Presented by: Dov Pasternak . Cotonou, 24 May 2010.

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an integrated value chain of onion and shallot in west africa strengths and weaknesses
An integrated value chain of onion and shallot in westafrica: strengths and weaknesses

SECOND WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE WEEK

***************

Albert Rouamba

Sanjeet Kumar

Paul Gniffke

Peter Hanson

Presented by: Dov Pasternak

Cotonou, 24 May 2010

contents
Contents
  • 1. Onion in the world, Africa and West Africa
  • 2. Onion and shallot value chain
  • 3. Analyze of the components of onion and shallot value chain
  • 4. Interactions and links between the actors of the value chain
  • 5. Strengths and weaknesses
  • 6. Recommendations
characteristics of onion and shallot chain
Characteristics of onion and shallot chain
  • Low degree of organization
  • Limited cooperation,
  • High transactional costs,
  • Unfair markets,
  • Significant post harvest loss,
  • Un-trained actors,
  • Insufficient use of research results
  • Absence of use of improved storage facilities,
  • Poor road networks
  • Insufficient transport facilities leading to
  • loss of the product value
analyze of the components of onion and shallot value chain
Analyze of the components of onion and shallot value chain

Components of onion and shallot value chain and flow of goods and services

research
Research
  • Generator of technologies
  • Performing varieties : Foundation seeds, certified seeds (Violet de Galmi, V28, FBO1, V13, AC980….
  • Development of good cultural practices
  • Development of best storage structures
  • and bulb management
  • Training

Bulb production to High value

input supply
Input supply

Seeds

Fertlizers

Crop protection products

Tool/equipment suppliers

Bags

Good seeds

Bad seeds

productions
Productions

Period: October to April

Zones: Arid and semi-arid zones in preference

Total production: 1.2 million of tons

Yield (t/ha): 18 tons for onion

Biggest producers: Nigeria and Niger

storage and processing
Storage and processing

Onion is perishable but could be saved up to 6-8 months with a loss rate of 20%

IF

Good seeds are used

Good cultural practices used

Good technical harvest and post harvest techniques used

Bulb store in good storage structures and correctly manage

80% of bulbs could be saved

slide11
Development of storage structures of onion considerably reduce the looses after harvest in West Africa

Improved shed about 5 to 10 tons, type ISRA-Senegal

Traditional shed can store 2-7 tons

slide12

Improved house for bulbs storage

Development of storage structures of onion considerably reduce the looses after harvest in West Africa (Ctd)

Improved house for bulbs storage at 50-100 tones

Industrial type for bulb storage at 500 tones

Performances of these structures are conditioned by the quality of produced bulbs

processing allows to reduce also the looses after onion harvest
Processing allows to reduce also the looses after onion harvest

Bulbs are sliced and dried

Bulbs crushed, dried and ground

export import and transporation
Export, import and transporation

Onion is a factor of regional integration

Producing countries

Consumer countries

Legend: Shallot: Onion:

Marketing intra-regional channels of onion and shallot in West Africa

Import from: EU+Egypt

relationship between the actors

70%

Relationship between the actors
  • Absence or weak dialogue
  • Interest group: loans, inputs
  • Limited profits and cohesion fragile.
  • Lack of professionalism

30% of the added value is generated by the product

MARKET

70%

PRODUCTION

30%

  • 70% of the added value is generated by the market

Distribution of the added value between the market and production.

strengths
Strengths

The intra-regional trade of onion and shallot constitutes a powerful tool for economic integration

Onion is the most important source of incomes for most farmers, notably the smallholders, and improves the livelihoods of the poorest, women and young.

The onion and shallot processing is exclusively for women who are more affected by unemployment

weaknesses
Weaknesses

The informal nature of relationship among the actors, inadequate capacity of organizations, limited access to formal credit and poor investment on productivity and profit enhancement

The poor social and physical infrastructures (like roads) in the region exacerbate the risks associated with marketing and increased costs of transportation to the destination.

The lack of organization market and forces the producers to sell their products to the traders at a low and unpaid cost

The ignorance or the insufficient use of agricultural research results constitutes serious barriers to the value chain of onion and shallot promotion

recommendations

70%

Recommendations

Today

Tomorrow

30% of the added value is generated by the product

70% of the added value is generated by the product

PRODUCTION

30%

PRODUCTION

70%

MARKET

30%

MARKET

70%

  • 30% of the added value is generated by the market
  • 70% of the added value is generated by the market

The trend should be reversed like this

Distribution of the added value between the market and production.

recommendations19
Recommendations
  • The recommendations aim to lead the producers to acquire a force capable of reversing the trend. For that, farmers have to:
  • Produce their own quality seed and comply with good agricultural practices to submit onions and shallots unbeatable.
  • - Generalize the use of technical performances of storage and processing of onions and shallots in order to make available in markets processed products or not according to demand while keeping prices at remunerative levels.