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Tonight’s Agenda. Internet Links & Articles Hardware Software Video & discussion Project ???. What are the 5 basic categories of computer hardware?. Hardware. Input devices Output devices CPU, RAM, BIOS, controllers Secondary storage devices Network and telecom devices

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tonight s agenda
Tonight’s Agenda
  • Internet Links & Articles
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Video & discussion
  • Project
  • ???
  • Input devices
  • Output devices
  • CPU, RAM, BIOS, controllers
  • Secondary storage devices
  • Network and telecom devices

Do you see the system theme continuing here? Input, processing, output, storage, control/feedback mechanisms?

calculating pre computer
Calculating pre-computer
  • Counting on fingers and toes
  • Abacus: manipulating stones or beads to count
    • The word calculate comes from calculus, the Latin word for small stone
  • First mechanical adding machine
    • Invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642
    • Wheels to move counters
  • Machines in the age of industrialization
    • Mechanical loom with cards punched with holes
early computing
Early computing
  • Charles Babbage and the Analytical Engine
    • 19th century
    • Machine that calculated, stored values in memory and perform logical comparisons
    • Mechanical rather than electronics
  • Herman Hollerith and the 1890 census
    • Punched cards to record census data (where did these come from??)
    • Cards read in a tabulating machine
    • Hollerith’s company went onto become IBM
electronic computers
Electronic computers
  • ENIAC – first electronic and digital computer
    • 1946
    • Programmable
    • 5000 calculations per second
    • Used vacuum tubes
    • First generation computer
    • Drawbacks: size and could only run 1 program
next wave of computing
Next wave of computing
  • Second generation, late 1950s
    • Transistors replace the vacuum tubes
    • 200,000 to 250,000 calculations per second
  • Third generation, mid 1960s
    • Integrated circuitry, miniaturization
  • Fourth generation, 1971
    • Further miniaturization of circuits
    • Multiprogramming and virtual storage
  • Fifth generation, 1980s
    • Millions of calculations per second
microcomputers a k a pc s
Microcomputers (a.k.a. PC’s)
  • 1975, ALTAIR, flicking switches
  • 1977, Commodore and Radio Shack produce personal computers
  • 1979, Apple computer – garage built w/RS parts, the fastest selling PC so far
  • 1982, IBM introduces the PC which helps change the market
  • 1984, Apple Macintosh, GUI, mouse, windows, 32-bit OS
microcomputer systems
Microcomputer Systems
  • Personal Computer (PC) – microcomputer for use by an individual
  • Desktop – fit on an office desk
  • Laptop – small, portable PC
  • Smaller devices??? Other devices???
microcomputer systems12
Microcomputer Systems
  • Workstation – a powerful, networked PC for business professionals
  • Network Server – more powerful microcomputers that coordinate telecommunications and resource sharing in small networks
how corporate buyers choose pcs
How corporate buyers choose PCs
  • Solid performance at a reasonable price
  • Operating system ready
  • Connectivity – reliable network interface or wireless capability
  • Focus on task-specific functions rather than extras
  • Other considerations?
  • How is this different than home purchases?
terminals outdated or reborn
Terminals – outdated or reborn?
  • Devices that allow access to a network
  • Dumb terminals – keyboard and video monitor with limited processing
  • Intelligent terminals – modified networked PCs or network computers
  • Network terminals or computers
    • Windows terminals depend on network servers for software, processing and storage – virtual sessions?
    • Internet terminals depend the Internet for operating systems and software – UNIVERSAL CLIENT??
information appliances
Information Appliances
  • Hand-held microcomputer devices – netbooks?
  • Personal digital assistants (PDA)
  • BlackBerry – iphone – cell phones – etc
  • Ipad - tablets
  • Video-game consoles
  • Other
midrange systems
Midrange systems
  • High-end network servers
  • Minicomputers for scientific research and industrial process monitoring
  • Less costly to buy, operate and maintain than mainframe
mainframe computer systems
Mainframe Computer Systems
  • Large, fast powerful computer systems
  • Large primary and secondary storage capacity
  • High transaction processing
  • Complex computations
  • More???????
supercomputer systems
Supercomputer Systems
  • Extremely powerful systems
  • Scientific, engineering and business applications at extremely high speeds
  • Global weather forecasting, military defense
  • Parallel processing with thousands of microprocessors
  • Billions of operations per second
  • Millions of dollars
  • +
computer hardware functions
Computer hardware functions
  • Input
    • Keyboards, mice, optical scanners
    • Convert data into electronic form
  • Processing
    • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
      • Arithmetic-logic unit performs the arithmetic functions
      • Control unit
  • Output
    • Video display units, printers, etc.
    • Convert electronic information into human-intelligible form
computer hardware functions20
Computer hardware functions
  • Storage
    • Primary Storage Unit or memory
    • Secondary Storage
      • Magnetic disks and Optical disks
  • Control
    • Control unit of the CPU
    • Controls the other components of the computer
  • Peripherals
moore s law
Moore’s Law

Where are we now? Still true?

computer storage fundamentals
Computer Storage Fundamentals
  • Binary representation
    • Data are processed and stored in computer system through the presence or absence of signals
    • Either ON or OFF
  • ON = number 1
  • OFF = number 0
bit and byte
Bit and Byte
  • Bit (short for binary digit)
    • Smallest element of data
    • Either zero or one
  • Byte
    • Group of eight bits which operate as a single unit
    • Represents one character or number
measuring storage capacities
Measuring storage capacities
  • Kilobyte (KB): one thousand bytes
  • Megabyte (MB): one million bytes
  • Gigabyte (GB): one billion bytes
  • Terabyte (TB): one trillion bytes
  • Petabyte (PB): one quadrillion bytes
semiconductor memory
Semiconductor memory
  • Microelectronic semiconductor memory chips
  • Used for primary storage
  • Advantage:
    • Small size
    • Fast
    • Shock and temperature resistance
  • Disadvantage:
    • Volatility: must have uninterrupted electric power or lose memory
  • Memristors – the missing component
two types of semiconductor memory
Two types of semiconductor memory
  • RAM: random access memory
    • Primary storage medium
    • Volatile memory
    • Read/write memory
  • ROM: read only memory
    • Permanent storage
    • (typically) Can be read but cannot be overwritten – modern chips can but only on the system level
    • Frequently used programs burnt into chips during manufacturing
    • Used to store firmware
flash drive
Flash drive
  • Permanent storage
  • Semiconductor memory
  • Small chip with thousands of transistors
  • Easily transported
  • What about solid state hard drives?

Source: Courtesy of Lexar Media.

magnetic disks
Magnetic Disks
  • Used for secondary storage
  • Fast access and high storage capacity

Source: Corbis.

Source: Quantum.

types of magnetic disks
Types of magnetic disks
  • Floppy disks
    • Magnetic disk inside a plastic jacket
  • Hard disk drives
    • Magnetic disk, access arms, and read/write heads in sealed module
  • RAID (Redundant arrays of independent disks)
    • Disk arrays of interconnected hard disk drives
    • Fault tolerant with multiple copies on several disks
magnetic tape
Magnetic Tape
  • Secondary storage
  • Tape reels and cartridges
  • Used in robotic automated drive assemblies
  • Archival storage and backup storage
uses of optical disks
Uses of optical disks
  • Image processing
    • Long term storage of historical files of images
    • Scan documents and store on optical disks
  • Publishing medium for fast access to reference materials
    • Catalogs, directories, etc.
  • Interactive multimedia applications
    • Video games, educational videos, etc.
radio frequency identification
Radio Frequency Identification
  • RFID
  • Tag and identify mobile objects
    • E.g., store merchandise, postal packages, pets
  • Use RFID chips to transmit and receive radio signals
  • Chips half the size of a grain of sand
  • Passive chips:
    • do not have power source and derive power from signal in reader
  • Active chips:
    • Self-powered
rfid versus bar codes
RFID versus bar codes
  • RFID
    • Scan from greater distance
    • Can store data
    • Allows more information to be tracked
  • Privacy concerns due to invisible nature



















operating system functions
Operating System Functions
  • Provides a user interface
    • Command-driven, Menu driven
    • GUI (graphical user interface)
  • Manages hardware – CPU, memory, storage, communications, & I/O
  • File Management
  • Task Management
operating system overview










and Other


Operating System Overview
operating system types
Operating System Types
  • DOS – Windows 3.1 (3.11)
  • MacOS – pre OS X
  • Windows 95/98/Me
  • Windows NT - 3.51, 4, 2000, XP, 2003
  • Win Vista & 7
  • UNIX, LINUX, & MacOS X??
  • Are there others?
software utilities
Software Utilities
  • Many former 3rd party utilities are now nested as standard OS components
  • File Management/transfer/remote access
  • System Maintenance & Disk Utilities
  • Anti-virus & firewalls
  • Zip file programs
  • Others??? Name some . . . .
programming languages
Programming Languages
  • Assembly/machine language
  • FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal, Basic
  • C/C++/C# (the code behind Unix & Linux)
  • Visual Basic
  • SQL (for database development)
  • XHTML, XML, CSS (web pages)
  • Java Script, PHP, ASP, Perl, etc (adds programming power to web pages)
  • 4GLs – A.I. & non-procedural/natural languages
categories of programming languages

Machine Languages

Use binary coded


High Level Languages

Use brief statements

Markup Languages

Use embedded

control codes

1001 1001

1100 1101

<H1>First heading</H>

<!ELEMENT Product

(#Item | manuf)>

Compute X = Y + Z

Assembler Languages

Use symbolic coded


Fourth Generation


Use natural statements



Define objects that

contain data and actions





(“Hi There”)

Categories of Programming Languages
  • Evolving towards natural language . . .
application design
Application design
  • What are your Inputs?
  • What is the desired Output?
  • Processing logic – How do we get there?
  • Code – Write the program.
  • Test the program and adjust if needed.
  • Documentation – So that future alterations and improvements can be easily made.
software acquisition
Software acquisition
  • Buy
  • Buy and modify
  • Build in-house
  • Outsource to build
major software applications
Major Software Applications
  • Office Apps -- MS Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Access, Outlook
  • Enterprise Databases -- Oracle
  • Groupware -- Lotus Notes, GroupWise
  • Web Authoring -- FrontPage & Dreamweaver
  • Web -- Netscape & IE, also FTP, chat, IM, newsgroup readers, email clients, Others?
  • Microsoft Visio & multimedia (plug-ins)
  • Art & DTP -- Photoshop, Paint shop pro, Quark
  • Accounting, CAD/CAM
  • OTHERS – What do you use??