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ARMA Presentation November 18, 2009. An Overview of Cloud Computing. Presented by: Nicholas Kottyan CEO, DataChambers, LLC 336-499-7220 Agenda. Objective History of Cloud Computing Definitions Cloud Characteristics, Types and Deployment Models Issues

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an overview of cloud computing

ARMA Presentation

November 18, 2009

An Overview of Cloud Computing

Presented by:

Nicholas Kottyan

CEO, DataChambers, LLC


  • Objective
  • History of Cloud Computing
  • Definitions
  • Cloud Characteristics, Types and Deployment Models
  • Issues
  • Clouds vs. Traditional
  • Recap - Economics - Next Steps
  • Q & A


  • To provide a general overview of cloud computing including:
  • How could affect my future business
  • Is the cloud for me and my business
  • What are some of the issues I should consider
  • Why should this be important to me
origin of the term cloud computing
Origin of the term “Cloud Computing”

“Comes from the early days of the Internet where we drew the network as a cloud… we didn’t care where the messages went… the cloud hid it from us” – Kevin Marks, Google

First cloud around networking (TCP/IP abstraction)

Second cloud around documents (WWW data abstraction)

The emerging cloud combines the infrastructure complexities of servers, applications, data, and heterogeneous platforms

summarized history
Summarized History
  • 1960 - John McCarthy opined that "computation may someday be organized as a public utility"
  • Early 1990s – The term “cloud” comes into commercial use referring to large networks and the advancement of the Internet.
  • 1999 – is established, providing an “on demand” SaaS (Software as a Service).
  • 2001 – IBM details the SaaS concept in their “Autonomic Computing Manifesto”
  • 2005 – Amazon provides access to their excess capacity on a utility computing and storage basis
  • 2007 – Google, IBM, various Universities embark on a large scale cloud computing research project
  • 2008 – Gartner says cloud computing will “shape the relationship among consumers of IT services, those who use IT services and those who sell them”
  • Lots of confusion
  • Several different “loosely applied” definitions
  • a style of computing in which massively scalable IT-related capabilities are provided "as a service" using Internet technologies to multiple external customers
definition continued
  • an internal or external “cloud enabled” service offering
  • the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet.
  • a general term for anything that involves delivering hosted services over the Internet.


  • Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. (NIST Definition, National Institute of Standards and Technology)
  • This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.
5 essential cloud characteristics
5 Essential Cloud Characteristics
  • On-demand self-service
  • Broad network access (Internet)
  • Resource pooling
    • Location independence
  • Rapid elasticity
  • Measured service

Additional Cloud Characteristics

  • Cloud computing often leverages:
    • Massive and Rapid scalability
    • Homogeneity
    • Virtualization
    • Resilient computing
    • Low cost software
    • Geographic distribution, (many datacenters)
    • Service orientation
    • Advanced security technologies

Cloud Deployment Models

  • Private Cloud (a.k.a. Internal Cloud)
    • enterprise owned or leased
  • Community Cloud (a.k.a. External Cloud)
    • shared infrastructure for specific community
  • Public cloud (a.k.a. External Cloud)
    • Sold to the public, mega-scale infrastructure
  • Hybrid cloud
    • composition of two or more clouds

Cloud Service Models

  • Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS)
    • Use provider’s applications over a network
  • Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS)
    • Deploy customer-created applications to a cloud
  • Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
    • Rent processing, storage, network capacity, and other fundamental computing resources
    • To be considered “cloud” services are deployed on top of cloud infrastructure that has the key characteristics

Issues with the Cloud

  • Security (number 1 concern)
  • Performance
  • Availability
  • Lack of Standards
  • Inability to Customize
  • Hard to Integrate with current in-house IT
  • Regulatory requirements
  • Note enough suppliers yet

Analyzing Cloud Security

  • Clouds are massively complex systems that can be reduced to simple primitives that are replicated thousands of times
  • These complexities create many issues related to security as well as all aspects of Cloud computing
  • Clouds typically have a single security architecture but have many customers with different demands
  • Cloud security issues may drive and define how we adopt and deploy cloud computing solutions
  • Highly sensitive data is likely to be on private clouds where organizations have complete control over their security model

More on Security

  • Trusting vendor’s security model
  • Where is the data stored and who is securing it
  • Inability to respond to audit requirements
  • Indirect administrator accountability
  • Loss of physical control
  • Data retention / backup standards
  • Redundancy / Disaster Recovery
  • Handling Compliance
    • State laws
    • International – EU Data Protection Directive
    • FTC Scrutiny
    • SAS 70 Audits

Objectives of Cloud Computing

  • Core objectives and principles that cloud computing must meet to be successful:
    • Security
    • Scalability
    • Availability
    • Performance
    • Cost-effective
    • Acquire resources on demand
    • Release resources when no longer needed
    • Pay for what you use
    • Leverage others’ core competencies
    • Turn fixed cost into variable cost
cloud based service examples
Cloud Based Service examples

Software as a Service

GoogleApps, Salesforce, SpringCM


Content Distribution

BitTorret, Amazon CloudFront



  • Peer to Peer
    • BOINC, Skype
  • Web Apps
    • Facebook, Twitter, YouTube
  • Security as a Service
    • MessageLabs, Purewire, ScanSafe, Zscaler
  • Software plus services
    • Microsoft Online Services
clouds vs traditional hosting
Clouds vs. Traditional Hosting
  • Three distinct characteristics that differentiate clouds from traditional hosting
    • It is sold on demand
      • Typically by the minute or the hour
    • It is elastic
      • A user can have as much or as little of a service as they want at any given time
    • The service is fully managed by the provider
      • The consumer needs nothing but a personal computer and Internet access
cloud economics
Cloud Economics
  • Estimates vary widely on possible cost savings
    • “If you move your data center to a cloud provider, it will cost a tenth of the cost.” – Brian Gammage, Gartner Fellow
  • Use of cloud applications can reduce costs from 50% to 90% - CTO of Washington D.C.
  • IT resource subscription pilot demonstrated a 28% cost savings - Alchemy Plus cloud (backing from Microsoft)
  • “Using Cloud infrastructure saves 18% to 28% before considering that you no longer need to buy peak capacity” – George Reese, founder Valtira and enStratus
  • When implementing Cloud you must consider other costs which may not be apparent today.
  • Clouds
    • Provide internet based services
    • Available on demand
    • And fully managed by the provider
    • There is no one “Cloud”. There are many models and architectures
  • Clouds let you
    • Avoid CapEx on hardware, software, and service
    • Share infrastructure and cost
    • Lower management overhead
    • Access a large range of apps
  • Many questions still remain!!!


Thanks for the opportunity present this subject!!

Nicholas L. Kottyan