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Zimbabwe is the home to Victoria Falls, one of the greatest natural wonders of the world. Encloses the stone of Great Zimbabwe, which is a remnant of a past empire ...

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zimbabwe

Zimbabwe

By: Ashley Youngblood

Friday, Nov. 2, 2007

introduction
I have chosen to inform you on Zimbabwe. I chose this topic because I feel most people do not understand the true life of most Africans. In this presentation I would like to share with you what life is like for Zimbabweans. Introduction
overview
In this presentation you will learn about the country of Zimbabwe. You will learn about the Zimbabwean government, ethnic groups, religions, languages, economy, customs & courtesies, and the lifestyle. Overview
informative facts
Informative Facts
  • Zimbabwe is the home to Victoria Falls, one of the greatest natural wonders of the world.
  • Encloses the stone of Great Zimbabwe, which is a remnant of a past empire
  • It is the home to herds of elephants and other roaming game in vast stretches of wilderness

Victoria Falls, July 2006

informative facts continued
Informative Facts continued…
  • Zimbabwe has endured rampant inflation and critical food and fuel shortages
  • Most Zimbabweans survive on grain handouts
  • The government’s urban slum demolition drive in 2005 drew more international condemnation. The president said is was an effort to boost law and order and development; critics have accused him of destroying slums housing oppositions supporters
    • Regardless, the razing of “illegal structures” left some 700,000 people with out jobs or homes, according to UN estimates
  • Zimbabwe has had a rocky relationship with the Commonwealth – it was suspended after President’s Mugabe’s controversial re-election in 2002 and later announced that it was pulling out for good
  • (Country profile: Zimbabwe, 1-2)
informative facts continued6
Informative Facts continued…
  • Location: Southern Africa
  • Total land area of 390,580 sq km
  • Land locked country
      • Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Zambia
      • The Zambezi forms a natural riverline boundary with Zambia; in full flood the massive Victoria Falls n the river forms the world’s largest curtain of falling water
  • Tropical climate moderated by altitude; rainy season is November to March
  • Recurring Droughts with flood and severe storms rare
  • (Zimbabwe, 2-3)
economy
Economy
  • The government faces a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles with an unsustainable fiscal deficit, an overvalued exchange rate, soaring inflation and bare shelves.
  • There is a high rate of unemployment which is putting pressure on Zimbabwe’s cities as hundreds of thousands of people are looking for work
  • Crime is on the increase and more people are living as squatters in poor conditions
  • In 2005 there was an estimated 80% unemployment rate
  • In 2004 there was an estimated 80% of the population under the poverty line
  • (Operation World 2001)
economy continued
Economy Continued…
  • The economy is basically agricultural although it was formerly strong commercial farming until the government through out the white-farmers in 2000
  • Zimbabwe formerly exported multiple food items but not must import grains.
  • Corn is the main food source, with cotton and tobacco as principal cash crops
  • Other products include sorghum, peanuts, wheat, sugarcane, soybeans, coffee, tea, and dairy farming.
  • Zimbabwe has good road and rail networks and domestic international air source
  • South Africa and Great Britain are the largest trading partners
  • Zimbabwe is a member of the Southern African Development Community
  • (Zimbabwe, 1)
government
Government
  • Politically, Zimbabwe is a time bomb waiting to explode.
  • Zimbabwe is governed by President Robert Bugabe and his Zimbabwean African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF) which had dominated the legislative and executive branches since independence in 1980
  • The president, which is elected by popular majority vote, is the head of state and head of government
  • In September 2005 the government used its two-thirds majority in parliament to pass a constitutional amendment that established a 66 member senate.
  • The Zimbabwean constitution institutionalizes majority rule and protection of minority rights. The elected government controls senior appointments in the public service which includes military and police and the independent Public Service Commission which is in charge of making appointments at lower levels on an equitable basis

(Background Note: Zimbabwe, 5)

a recent time line of important events
A Recent Time Line of Important Events
  • February 2000
      • Squatters seize hundreds of white owned farms in an ongoing and violent campaign to reclaim what they say was stolen by settlers.
      • President Mugabe suffers defeat in referendum on draft constitution
  • July 2001
      • Finance Minister Simba Makoni publicly acknowledges economic crisis, saying foreign reserves have run out and warning of serious food shortages
      • Most Western donors, including World Bank and IMF, have cut aid because of President Mugabe’s land seizure programme
  • April 2002
      • State of disaster declared as worsening food shortages threaten famine
      • Government blames drought, the UN’s World Food Programme says disruption to agriculture is a contributing factor
  • June 2002
      • 45 day countdown for some 2,900 white farmers to leave their land begins, under terms of a land-acquisition law passed in May
  • November 2002
      • Agriculture Minister Joseph Made says the land-grab is over
      • The government has seized 35 million acres of land from white farmers
a recent time line of important events continued
A Recent Time Line of Important Events continued…
  • January 2005
      • The US labels Zimbabwe as one of the world’s six “outposts of tyranny”
      • Zimbabwe rejects the statement
  • March 2005
      • Ruling ZANU-PF party wins two-thirds of the votes in parliamentary polls
      • Main opposition party says election was rigged against it
  • May 2006
      • Year-on-year inflation exceeds 1,000%
      • New banknotes, with three noughts deleted from their values are introduced in August
  • December 2006
      • Ruling ZANU-PF party approves a plan to move presidential polls from 2008 t 2010, extending Mr. Mugabe’s rule by two years
  • May 2007
      • Warning of power cuts for up to 20 hours a day while electricity is diverted towards agriculture

(Timeline: Zimbabwe, 3-6)

ethnic groups language
African – 98%

Shona 82%

Ndebele 14%

Other 2%

Mixed & Asian – 1 %

White less than 1%

English is the official language

Shona

Sindebele (the language of the Ndebele)

Numerous but minor tribal dialects

Ethnic Groups & Language

(Zimbabwe, 5)

people
Population 12,311,143

Median Age

Total: 20.1 years

Male: 19.9

Female: 20.2

Population Growth Rate

0.595%

Birth Rate

27.72 births per 1,000 population

Death Rate

21.76 deaths per 1,000 population

Infant Mortality Rates

51.12 deaths per 1,000 live births

Life Expectancy at birth

Total population: 39.5 years

Male: 40.62 years

Female: 38.35 years

HIV/AIDs

35% of the population carry the virus

At 700 people die a week from AIDs

One million children (10% of the population) have been orphaned because their parents have died of AIDs

adult prevalence rate

24.6%

People living

1.8 million

Deaths

170,00

People

(Zimbabwe, 3-4)

religion
Religion
  • Syncretic – 50%
      • Part Christian, part indigenous beliefs
  • Christian – 25 %
  • Indigenous beliefs – 24%
  • Muslim and other – 1%

(Zimbabwe, 5)

religion continued
Religion Continued…
  • Religion is driven by the twin axes of fear and power
  • Everything had a religious significance
  • Life is lived in the present
  • God is distant, not close
  • God is approached through mediators
  • People of power are respected and sought in times of trouble
  • Magic protects me and affects others
  • Magic is real and to be respected
  • Africans are emotive and enjoy worship in community
customs and courtesies
Customs and Courtesies
  • Greetings
    • Strangers are greeted with a single handshake where as friends are greeted with a longer handshake.
    • As a sign of respect, the right arm is supported with the left hand.
    • Rural Shona have a slow, patterned hand clap as an additional show of respect.
    • A simple greeting is never enough, one must always inquire about one’s family.
    • Children are addressed on a first name basis.
    • Rural parents may be referred to by their the name of their oldest child.
    • Elderly are addressed as grandmother or grandfather
    • An elderly person is always shown great respect, greeted first, and obeyed by all children.
    • (Republic of Zimbabwe, 722-723)
customs and courtesies continued
Customs and Courtesies continued…
  • Gestures
    • Items are passed and accepted with both hands.
    • As a gesture of gratitude or politeness, Shona may clap their hands.
    • To show respect, one must lower themselves; there forth people will sit when they converse
      • Women will sit on floor mats where men are higher up on stools or chairs
    • You do not rise when an elder enters the room
    • It is considered rude when you make direct contact with an elder.
    • It is inappropriate for one to show public displays of affection; although it is appropriate for friends of the same sex to hold hands while walking.
    • Personal space is very limited
    • (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
customs and courtesies continued18
Customs and Courtesies continued…
  • Visiting
    • Time is a flexible concept in the villages where as in the city, people are expected to arrive on time
    • Unannounced visit are common in the villages but a greeting is called out first asking permission to enter home
    • It is important for Zimbabwean quest to feel comfortable
    • Hosts always offer refreshments
    • It is impolite to refuse refreshments or meals
    • A small gift is appreciated by the hosts and in return often give a departing gift; for example, a garden produce
    • Rural hosts usually accompany their guest much of the way home
    • (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
customs and courtesies continued19
Customs and Courtesies continued…
  • Eating
    • Breakfast at ate before work, lunch is light, with their main meal in the evening
    • Rural residents normally eat with their right handed fingers
    • All hands are washed before and after a meal using a washbasin passed from person to person
      • The water for an older person is poured by someone younger
    • Rural families eat together
      • However, if guests are present, children eat separately
    • Drinks are taken after all the food is eaten
    • Guest are served first and given meat with their meal
    • To show respect and indicate one has been well provided for, one will clap softly and says Ndaguta
    • Rural families cook over a small fire or paraffin stove
    • (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
lifestyle family
Lifestyle - Family
  • The father is the head of the family
    • He makes all the final decisions
    • He supports his family, including children, wives, and any mistresses financially
  • The mother does have influence in the home
  • Polygamy is still practiced although is becoming less common
  • Women care for the children and the household
    • They often sell produce and other items at roadside markets
    • (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
lifestyle family continued
Lifestyle – Family continued…
  • Extended family is strong and provides a social safety net
  • Financial support can be expected by relatives in hard times and must share in prosperous times
  • Borrowing between relatives is common and more in the form of giving
  • Rural families often share households
  • Children care for their parents as the age, because elderly family is considered a treasure
  • (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
lifestyle dating marriage
Lifestyle – Dating & Marriage
  • Young Zimbabweans meat at school or social function although dating is more common in the cities
  • When a couple is ready for marriage, a representative of the groom will visit the bride’s family to negotiate gifs and a bride price which is known as lobola or roora
  • A traditional lobola involves cattle, but it is more common to pay with cash
  • Virginity in women is valued and will bring a higher bride-price; although when families demand higher prices, grooms are finding it difficult to pay
  • Traditional weddings usually last more than a day which involves feasting, dancing, and drinking
  • It is culturally acceptable for men to openly have extramarital affairs, which is consider necessary by men to prove virility. However this has contributed to a high HIV infection rate
  • (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
lifestyle recreation and the arts
Lifestyle – Recreation and the Arts
  • Soccer is the must common sport
  • Girls play netball
  • Most Zimbabweans like to dance
    • Rural youth on Saturday nights dance to Zimbabwean music on the radio
    • Chimurenga, which is one of the most popular local styles, combines traditional Shona with electric instruments
    • (Republic of Zimbabwe, 723)
lifestyle holidays
National Holidays

New Year’s Day

Easter

Includes Good Friday and Easter Monday

Independence day

April 18

Workers Day

May 1

Africa Day

May 25

Heroes Day & Defense Forces Day

August 11 – 12

Honors causalities of liberation struggle

Christmas

Boxing Day

Dec 26

Local religious celebrations are also held throughout the year

(Republic of Zimbabwe, 724)

Lifestyle - Holidays
u s department of state background note zimbabwe
U.S. Department of StateBackground Note: Zimbabwe
  • http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5479.htm
  • This website gives you an overview of the country of Zimbabwe
    • Includes
        • Geography
        • People
        • Government
        • Economy
        • People and History
        • Travel and Business Information
  • This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out general information on Zimbabwe
cia the world factbook zimbabwe
CIA – The World FactbookZimbabwe
  • https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/zi.html
  • This website gives you an in-depth overview with statistics about the country of Zimbabwe
    • Includes
      • Introduction
      • Geography
      • People
      • Government
      • Economy
      • Communications
      • Transportation
      • Military
      • Transnational Issues
  • This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out general information on Zimbabwe including statistics.
bbc news country profile zimbabwe
BBC NEWS Country profile: Zimbabwe
  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/1064589.stm
  • This website gave a brief overview of Zimbabwe; particularly the facts, leaders, and media.
  • This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out general information on Zimbabwe’s leadership and media.
bbc news timeline zimbabwe a chronology of key events
BBC NEWSTimeline: Zimbabwe A chronology of key events
  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1831470.stm
  • This website gives you an overview of Zimbabwe through a chronology timeline
  • This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out important events in Zimbabwe’s history.
dictionary com zimbabwe information from reference com
Dictionary.comZimbabwe – Information from Reference. com
  • http://www.reference.com/search?q=Zimbabwe
  • This website is great for looking up multiple references for Zimbabwe
    • Including
      • Land & People
      • Economy
      • Government
      • History
  • This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out multiple overviews on Zimbabwe.
culturegrams world edition 2004 republic of zimbabwe
CultureGrams World Edition 2004Republic of Zimbabwe
  • Axiom Press, Inc
  • This reference article provides us with an abundant amount of information on Zimbabwe
    • Includes
      • Background Information
      • The People
      • Customs and Courtesies
      • Lifestyle
      • Society
      • At a Glance
  • This article would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out important information on Zimbabwe.
african kingdoms great ages of man a history of the world s cultures
African KingdomsGreat Ages of ManA History of the World’s Cultures
  • By Basil Davidson and the Editors of Time-Life Books
  • This book gives you an in-depth look at the history of Africa and its many countries
  • This book was great in the form of the ancient history of Zimbabwe
  • This site would be useful for teachers, students, and parents wanting to find out about the ancient history of Zimbabwe.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • I hope you have learned a quick overview of what life is like in Zimbabwe
  • I hope you find the information on their customs, courtesies, and lifestyle particularly informative
reference page
Reference Page
  • BBC NEWS. (20, Sept. 2007). Timeline: Zimbabwe, A Chronology of Key Events. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from BBC NEWS Website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/country_profiles/1831470.stm
  • BBC NEWS. (20, Sept. 2007). Country Profile: Zimbabwe. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from BBC NEWS Website: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/country_profiles/1064589.stm
  • CIA – The World Factbook. (18, Oct. 2007). Zimbabwe. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from CIA-The World Factbook—Zimbabwe Website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/zi.html
  • Bureau of African Affairs. (Sept. 2007). Background Note: Zimbabwe. Retrieved Oct. 23, 2007, from US Department of State Website: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5479.htm
  • Zimbabwe. (n.d.). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 02, 2007, from Reference.com website: http://www.reference.com/search?q=Zimbabwe
reference page continued
Reference Page Continued…
  • Axiom Press, Inc. (2004). Republic of Zimbabwe [print version]. CultureGrams World Edition, 2004, 721-724