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  1. Interactive and Independent Constraints in Strophic TextsettingJohn HalleBard Conservatory of Musichalle@bard.edu(available for download at www.johnhalle.com/musical.writing.technical/similarity.real.pdf)

  2. I. General Introduction: How Do We Study Music? • Instrumental or vocal instruction (performance) • Creation of new works (composition/improvisation) • Music in relation to society (ethnomusicology) • Literature and history (musicology) • Objective musical structure/How pieces of music are constructed (music theory) • Subjective musical structure/ How music is heard (cognitive music theory/cognitive science)

  3. II. Four Problems in “metrical” form • Stress Assignment Problem (language) (see e.g. Idsardi 2004, Hayes 1997, Hammond 2003, Kenstowicz 1999, Liberman 1972, Halle-Chomsky 1968) • Prosodic Form Problem (language + music ) • (Generative Metrics: Halle+Keyser 1971, Kiparsky 2008, 1998, Hayes and Kaun 2002, Hayes, A. Deo 2007 Traditional Prosody Attridge 1983, Cureton 2002, Groves 1994, Gascoigne 1724, Larsen 1775) • Textsetting Problem (music + language) (Hayes 2008, Fain and Hallmark 1975, Steele 1772!, Halle-Lerdahl 1993) • Beat Induction Problem (music) (Lerdahl and Jackendoff 1983, Tenney and Polansky 1975, Eck 2000, Honig and Desain 2001)

  4. 1) Stress Assignment Problem-Linguistics: Metrical Phonology 1) Syllables projected to lowest level of grid x x x x x Ticonderoga 2) Degree of stress indicated by corresponding height of column x x x x x x x x x x Ticonderoga 3) Problem: How to compute/generate 2) from phonological/morphological primitives.

  5. 2) Prosodic Form Problem (generative metrics) Given a line of text in a meter, how do we know that it is metrical? e.g. M. Halle-Fabb (2008) The curfew tolls the knell of parting day. (* * (* * (* * (* *( * * Gl 0 * * * * * Gl 1 Ode to the West Wind by Percy Byssche Shelley. * (* * (* * (* * (* * (* * Gl 0 * * * * * Gl 1

  6. 3) Text setting Problem (cognitive music theory) Given a tune and a text, how do we know what fits together? • Tell me not in mournful numbers. (Longfellow) • Through all the compass of the notes (Dryden) a) \ e e e e \ eeee \b) e e e \ eeee \ e Grid Representation of a): Grid representation of b): x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n

  7. 4) Beat Induction Problem (cognitive music theory) Given a sequence of notes, random pitches, clicks, flashes: ||: 3 1 4 4 4 8 :|| What computation do listeners perform to derive what they hear? i.e. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 3 1 4 4 4 8

  8. III. Main Topic: Strophic text settingsAssumption: A song is a composite object: Dell-Halle (forthcoming) song text (linguistic grammar) Tune (musical grammar) Text setting interaction Claim: Interactive AND Independent constraints dictate what is an acceptable text setting.

  9. Three kinds of interactive constraints1) Stress matching (in English) Stress mismatches. Morgan and Janda (1989) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x <G> C D E C C D E C a. Frè re Jac ques, frè re Jac ques b. My brothers dog keeps on bark ing* c. My bro thers dog - keeps on bark ing d. El perro de mis her man os

  10. 2) Constituency Matching Inherent constituent structure of tune (grouping structure) must match inherent constituent structure of text (prosodic hierarchy-c.f. Hayes 1988, Nespor and Vogel) 1.2.1 Iambic tetrameter (Robert Frost) set to Hernando’s Hideaway gives matched constituents

  11. Constituency mismatch Grey’s Elegy (iambic pentameter) assigned to Hernando’s Hideaway:

  12. 3) Constraints on Melismas Melisma = two or more syllables per note Handel “Let God Arise”:

  13. Stoquerus’Rules (1570:1988) Stoquerus Rule 1: Acceptable settings may contain more notes than syllables (melismas) but not more syllables than notes. First two syllables of “cinnamon” assigned to one note: becomes

  14. Stoquerus Rule 4: “When several notes are put down in the same place, each one ought to be given a syllable.” => “are” and “sage” cannot be assigned to the same pitch. Stoquerus Rule 5: The continuation of a melisma may not appear in a metrically stronger position than its onset. => “are” cannot be shifted rightward.

  15. III. Independent Constraints on Strophic Song The facts. Text setting intuitions are “productive”. Just as everyone uses language creatively, everyone is a composer, e.g. "The Drunken Sailor": Halle-Lerdahl (1993) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (A) (A) A A A A A A A D (D) F (F) A a. What shall we do with a drunk en sail or (10 syllables = 10 notes) b. Put him in the scup- pers with a hose pipe on him. (12 syllables) c. Keel haul him till he’s sob er (7 syllables) d.Scrape the hair off his chest with a hoop ir on raz or (?) (13 syllables)

  16. Interactive vs. independent violations: What’s the difference? x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x A A A A A A A D F A a)* Keel haul him till he’s sober on Sun day. (interactive violation-stress mismatch) b)* Keel haul him till he’s sob er øø c)* Keel haul him till he’s sob er (independent violation-unacceptable variants)

  17. Some deletions possible; others not. E.g. deletion of a acceptable, deletion of b and c not acceptable. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x variant*: A A A A A ø A D øø original: A A A A A A A D F A abc

  18. Deletions=”optional vacancy” x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Wake him and shake him till he’s sob er. A A A A A ø A D F A a Some insertions possible-“optional occupancies” e.g. a and b. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Original: A A A A A A A D F A Variant: A A A A A A A A A D F A a b Put him inthe scup-pers with a hose pipe on him

  19. IV. Similarity Metric: Designates the class of possible strophic variants "The Farmer in the Dell” x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x (C) C F F F F F F F a) The far- mer in the dell. (original) b) The rat eats the cheese. (attested variant) c) E liz a beth eats the cheese. (possible construct) d) The far mer dan ces a jig. e) E liz a beth dan ces a jig. f) An a stas i a eats the cheese.

  20. Unacceptable constructs-interactive violations x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x C F F F F F a)* Emil y takes the child. (stress mismatch) b)* John - takes the child. (Stoquerus rule 4) c)* ø John takes the child.(unacceptable variant) Other independently unacceptable strophic variants. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x a) C F F F F F b) C F F F F F c) F F F F F F F

  21. Similarity Metric (code) Occupancy categories. 1 Mandatory occupancy: occupied in original and in all acceptable variants - Optional vacancy: occupied in the original; may be deleted in acceptable variants. + Optional occupancy: vacant in the original; may be occupied in acceptable variants. ø Mandatory vacancy: vacant in original and in all acceptable variants. Applied categories x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x C C F F F F F F F + 1 1 + - 1 + - 1 øøø The far mer in the dell.

  22. V. Similarity Metric: Rule Derivation Strong beats mandatory: Similarity Metric Assignment Rule (hereafter SMAR) 1 (meter): Strong positions maintain their original occupancy status in all variants. Assign category 1 to all strong metrical positions occupied in the original. Drunken Sailor (application of SMAR 1) x x x x (tactus) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x A A A A A A A D F A 1 1 1 1 (SMAR 1)

  23. Au clair de la lune: changes of pitch seem to be maintained in variants. x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x F F F G A G F A G G F * * * * * * * * * 1 - 1 1 1 + 1 + 1 1 1 - 1 øøø SMAR 2 (pitch change-first version): Assign category 1 to both members of a pair of adjacent events having different pitches. Au clair de la lune (application of SMAR 1) x x x x x x x x (tactus) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x F F F G A G F A G G F SMAR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

  24. Au clair de la lune (application of SMAR 2) x x x x x x x x (tactus) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x F F F G A G F A G G F SMAR 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ø SMAR 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

  25. Group edges seem to be mandatory. (The Farmer in the Dell) x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x |C F F F F F | 1 1 øøø SMAR 3 (group edges): Within each group, designate as mandatory a) the metrical position corresponding to the initial event in the original and b) all metrical positions to the right of the final event of a group. SMAR 4. (default assignment) Designate all non-assigned positions as optional categories - or 3 depending on their occupancy status in the original.

  26. VI. Conclusion-what does the SM do? Conjecture: SM describes/explains so called optional positions in poetic meters. e.g. Malof (1970). 1) Headless feet in iambic pentameter. "Twenty bookes clad in blak and red." (Chaucer) 2) Feminine endings “To be or not to be that is the question” and "Whatever ails me, now a-late especially." Cf. Halle-Keyser (1971): (w) s w s w s w s w s (x) (x) 3) Frost’s “Loose iambs” (ternary feet). “Two roads diverged in a yellow wood.” 4) Proposal: This is iambic pentamenter x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x + 1 - 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 1 - 1 1 - - øø HK (w) s w s w s w s w s (x) (x)

  27. What’s the evidence? • Abercrombie (1966), Attridge (1980), etc. • Poets recitations of their texts (Frost, Yeats, Browning etc.) • Composers’ text settings. Schubert (“Ungeduld”)

  28. If SM represents the underlying competence of those fluent in a metrical idiom, then we have unified the prosodic form and text setting problems. The former is a special case of the latter. We don’t not just consume music passively: we actively create it every time we speak. Everyone is a composer. Thanks for listening!