They are more efficient in that they require less working memory and fewer cognitive ... Graphics work so. economically because of what Larkin and Simon ...
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as a Learning Device
A Taxonomy of Significant Learning
Feedback and Assessment
Teaching & Learning
words and pictures together than from words or pictures
text. . . .
than text. They are more efficient in that they require less working memory and fewer cognitive
transformations than text. . . .Graphics work so
economically because of what Larkin and Simon
(1987) call “perceptual enhancement,” which means they communicate information on two levels at once: through their individual elements and through the spatial arrangement of those elements.”
Nilson, The Graphic Syllabus and the Outcomes Map, 19.
Pattern recognition. . .
visual, global, spatial
semantic & episodic
verbal & visual-spatial
Retrieved more easily
at once. . .
Verbal & visual-spatial memory systems
Retained and retrieved,
Provide a global picture.