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The Progressives. Important Ideas. 1 st national reform movement Comes from the era of the “bosses” Saw government as a protector, not an oppressor Spawned an activist state Sought to regulate the economy Wanted to manage society. Roots of Progressive Movement.

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Important Ideas

  • 1st national reform movement

  • Comes from the era of the “bosses”

  • Saw government as a protector, not an oppressor

  • Spawned an activist state

  • Sought to regulate the economy

  • Wanted to manage society


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Roots of Progressive Movement

  • Came from the Depression of 1893

    • Families lost their homes

    • Mass unemployment

    • Huge gap between rich and poor

    • New immigration

    • Labor problems of a new industrial society

      • Hundreds of strikes

      • Violence

    • Paternalistic feeling by Middle Class


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Goals

  • Efficient government

  • Honest politics

  • Regulation of business

  • Orderly economy

  • Social justice

    • Welfare

      • Children

      • Women

      • workers

  • Purify

    • Alcohol

    • Drugs

    • Prostitution

    • slums


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The Progressive Movement. . .

  • . . used the organization, management, and scientific advancements of industry.

  • . .signified the evolving landscape of shifting values in the emerging industrial cities of the nation.

  • . .involved mostly middle-class residents of the cities who took civic responsibility seriously (Social Gospel idea)


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Muckrakers

  • Upton Sinclair The Jungle

  • Jane Addams The Story of Hull House

  • Ida Tarbell History of Standard Oil Company

  • Frank Norris The Octopus and McTeague

  • Lincoln Steffens The Shame of the Cities and Tweed Days in St. Louis

  • Jacob Riis How the Other Half Lives

  • Theodore Dreiser Sister Carrie, The Financier, and The Titan

  • “Ashcan” school

    • Photographer Alfred Stieglitz

    • Painters John Sloan and George Bellows

  • Magazines

    • McClure’s

    • Collier’s

    • Cosmopolitan


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Progressive Reformers

  • John Dewey—1896 modern education

  • John B. Watson—behaviorism

  • Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. 1902

    • Supreme Court interpretation according to changing society

  • Louis Brandeis 1908

    • Muller v Oregon

    • “Brandeis Brief” 102 pages of damages caused by working long hours


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4 Cs

  • Control of corporation

  • Conservation of resources

  • Citizen protection

  • Changing the government


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Control of Corporation

  • TR’s “Square Deal” for labor

    • Mediate coal miner’s strike in 1902

  • Trust Busters

    • Sherman Anti-trust Act 1890

      • Ineffective until TR (Northern Securities, Standard Oil, and 40 others)

    • Elkins Act 1903 and Hepburn Act 1906

      • Gave ICC power to enforce regulation

    • William Howard Taft

      • Suits against over 66 companies

      • Mann-Elkins Act 1910 –ICC includes telephone, telegraph

    • Woodrow Wilson New Freedom

      • Clayton Anti-trust Act 1914

      • Federal Trade Commission 1914

      • Federal Reserve Act 1914 (banking)

      • Federal Farm Loan Act 1916

      • Child Labor Act 1916


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Conservation of Resources

  • TR

    • Used Forest Reserve Act of 1891 to set aside 150 m. acres as national reserve

    • Newlands Act 1902—public money for irrigation projects

    • Establishes the National Conservation Commission (Gifford Pinchot) in 1908

    • 1906 Antiquities Act used to establish national parks like Yellowstone


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Citizen Protection

  • Pure Food and Drug Act 1906

  • Meat Inspection Act 1906

  • 1908 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People formed by members of the Niagra Movement under leadership of W. E. B. DuBois

  • Settlement houses like Hull House started by Jane Addams and Frances Kelley

  • Temperance movement –Anti-Saloon League (Carrie Nation)

    • 18th Amendment--prohibition

  • National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) formed in 1900 by Carrie Chapman Catt

    • 19th Amendment (1920) gives women the right to vote

  • Chicago “Vice” Squad

    • Crack down on prostitution

    • Mann Act—cannot transport women across state lines for illegal purposes


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Changing Government

  • 16th Amendment—income tax

  • City commissions and managers

  • Secret ballot (Australian)

  • Direct primaries (promoted by Gov. Robert LaFollette to eliminate “bosses”)

  • 17th Amendment—Direct election of Senators

  • Initiative—voters suggest a bill to legislature

  • Referendum—voters actually propose law

  • Recall—voters remove corrupt politican

  • 20th Amendment—new dates for officials to take office—eliminates “lame duck” practices