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The Global Positioning System A Worldwide Information Utility. April 11, 2002 Jason Y. Kim Office of Space Commercialization U.S. Department of Commerce Overview. What is GPS? Applications & Markets GPS Modernization International Cooperation Spectrum Protection.

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The Global Positioning System A Worldwide Information Utility

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    1. The Global Positioning SystemA Worldwide Information Utility April 11, 2002 Jason Y. KimOffice of Space CommercializationU.S. Department of

    2. Overview • What is GPS? • Applications & Markets • GPS Modernization • International Cooperation • Spectrum Protection

    3. What is GPS?

    4. The System • 24+ satellites operated by USAF provide 24-hour, all-weather, global coverage • Satellites are equipped with atomic clocks • Precise time signals are broadcast on L-band radio frequencies • Four satellite signals enable receivers to triangulate position

    5. How It Works • Satellites broadcast • • Precise time • • Orbit data • • Satellite health • Receiver measures time delay from satellites, and by triangulation calculates • • Location • • Elevation • • Velocity

    6. GPS is a Dual-Use System • Cold War spinoff • Developed in 1970s-1980s to support Allied forces • Prominent in Gulf War, Kosovo • After KAL-007, civilians gained free access to Standard Positioning Service • Commercial use now dwarfs military use • GPS policy is managed at a national level by the Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB)

    7. Interagency GPS Executive Board Defense Transportation State Commerce Agriculture Interior NASA Joint Chiefs of Staff Justice

    8. United States GPS Policy • Presidential Decision Directive signed in 1996, endorsed by Congress in 1998 • GPS Standard Positioning Service to remain free of direct user fees • U.S. to promote acceptance and use of GPS as a world standard • Selective Availability -- ended May 2000 • IGEB to manage GPS as a national asset

    9. United States GPS Policy, cont’d. • Encourage private sector investment in/use of GPS technologies and services • Promote safety and efficiency in transportation and other fields • Promote international cooperation in using GPS for peaceful purposes • Advance scientific and technical capabilities • Strengthen and maintain national security

    10. Applications & Markets

    11. Worldwide GPS Hardware Sales Expected to Exceed $9B by 2002 (Projected) $Billions Source: OSC, 2001

    12. Global Sales by Market Segment $ Millions Source: ITA, 1998

    13. Car Navigation • On-board navigation • Fleet management • Roadside assistance • Stolen vehicle recovery • Enhanced services • Mass market dominated by Japan • Dataquest: Unit sales of chips for car navigation to reach 11.3M in 2001

    14. Consumer/Recreational • Portable receivers for fishermen, hunters, hikers, cyclists, etc. • Recreational facilities -- golf courses, ski resorts • Integration of GPS into cellular phones • E-911 requirement

    15. Surveying/Mapping/GIS • Sub-centimeter accuracy • 100%-300% savings in time, cost, & labor • Control survey point: $10,000 in 1986; $250 in 1997 • Rural electrification • Telecom tower placement • Pipelines • Oil, gas, and mineral exploration • Flood plain mapping

    16. Tracking/Machine Control • Package/cargo delivery • Fleet and asset management • Theft recovery • Public safety and services • Farming, mining, and construction equipment • DGPS/RTK required for many applications

    17. Public Services • City planning • Transportation infrastructure • Road Billing Network (ROBIN) • Snowplows • Emergency response • Law enforcement • Fire fighting • Search and rescue • Paramedics • Disaster relief

    18. Aviation • GPS approved for en-route navigation • More efficient flight routing leads to fuel savings • Better tracking of aircraft enhances safety • Closer spacing of planes increases airspace capacity

    19. Maritime Navigation • GPS-based vessel tracking and traffic management maximizes effectiveness of waterways • Improved safety increases maritime commerce • Maritime DGPS service for enhanced accuracy and safety available in 34 countries

    20. Original Equipment Manufacturers • Chipsets • Electronic boards • Antennas, components • Standalone receivers

    21. Military • GPS is a recognized NATO standard • GPS is required on all U.S. military systems • Precision munitions widely used during Gulf War, Kosovo

    22. Timing • GPS offers an inexpensive alternative to costly, high maintenance timing equipment • Telecommunications network synchronization & management • Phones, pagers, wireless systems • LANs, WANs, Internet • Financial transactions • Electrical power grid management & fault location • Digital signatures for e-commerce

    23. Scientific Research • Monitoring geological change • Glaciers, tectonic plates, earthquakes, volcanoes • Wildlife behavior • Atmospheric modeling • Water vapor content • Oceanic studies • Tidal patterns • Surface mapping • Time transfer

    24. Environmental Management • Forestry • Wetlands management • Natural resource management • Fisheries boundary enforcement • Endangered species and habitat preservation • Hazardous material cleanup • Oil spills, toxic waste

    25. Emerging GPS Applications • Entrepreneurs and scientific researchers invent new applications almost every day • Higher precision is necessary for many cutting-edge applications • Differential GPS (DGPS) • Relative DGPS • Carrier phase positioning • Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) • Post-processing

    26. Precision Agriculture • Maximize use of resources • Optimized plowing of crop rows • Tailored applications of seeds, fertilizer, water, pesticides • Improved management of land, machinery, personnel, time • Greater crop yields • Net benefit: $5-14 per acre • Minimize environmental impacts • Localized identification and treatment of distressed crops reduces chemical use • Precise leveling of fields prevents fluid runoff

    27. Open Pit Mining • Enhanced management of assets, equipment • Progress tracked in real-time, remotely • Improved machine control saves time, lowers maintenance and fuel consumption, prevents accidents • Rapid surveying for drilling blast holes • Smaller, more empowered workforce

    28. Space Applications • Improved orbit and attitude control for spacecraft, International Space Station • Space Station return vehicle • Advance Land Observing Satellite uses GPS to calibrate high resolution radar maps • Satellite formation flying • Space launch range safety

    29. Construction • Machinery, asset, and personnel management • Rapid surveys for laying foundation piles, etc. • Accident prevention • Remote control of machinery possible • Japanese volcano dam GPS/RTK technology was used in the construction of the Øresund Bridge between Denmark and Sweden

    30. The Market is Wide Open • Civil signals are freely available, right now • Openly published GPS specifications allow anyone to build receivers (no licensing fees) • Hardware is becoming a commodity • Huge potential exists in value-added services • Software development • Embedded applications • Localized GIS databases • Internet integration • Wireless markets

    31. Unit Cost of Receivers is Falling at ~30% Per Year $800 $600 $400 $200 0 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 Source: GPS Industry Council, 1995

    32. Relative Market Share Projections Source: ITA, 1998

    33. GPS Modernization

    34. Background • 1996 Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) and 1998/99 Vice Presidential announcements committed US to modernization and improvement path • Selective Availability (SA) turned to zero NLT 2006 • Two new civil signals and new military signals • Free world-wide use • Move from studies to action initiated in FY 2000 • SA discontinued in May 2000 • Deputy Secretary of Defense directed changes to existing and future satellites • OMB directed TOA transfer from DoT to DoD • Block IIF program terminated at 12 satellites and GPS III development began Modernization Now in Full Swing

    35. The End of Selective AvailabilityMay 2, 2000

    36. C/A P(Y) P(Y) M M L2C C/A P(Y) P(Y) M M L2C C/A P(Y) P(Y) Modernized Signal Evolution Present Signal (Block II/IIA/IIR) 2nd Civil; M-Code Block IIR-M 3rd Civil Block IIF 1176 MHz (L5) 1227 MHz (L2) 1575 MHz (L1)

    37. Second Civil Signal (L2C) - Block IIR-M Satellites First launch in 2003, then every satellite thereafter Provides a redundant signal for civil users Improved continuity in case L1 signal reception is lost Improved accuracy via dual-frequency ionosphere correction Wide-lane for extremely-precise local area differential GPS Third Civil Signal (L5) - Block IIF Satellites First launch in 2005, then subsequent satellites thereafter Provides redundant dual-frequency capability for civil users Improved continuity in case L1 or L2 signal reception is lost Improved accuracy via triple-frequency ionosphere correction Tri-lane for ultra-precise local area differential GPS Provides an interference-resistant signal for civil users New Civil Signal Rollout

    38. New Civil Code on L2 • Advantages of a New Signal • Improved cross-correlation properties • Improved tracking capability -- 3dB higher power than Coarse Acquisition (C/A) on L2 • Signal Characteristics • Two codes: one with data (medium code); one without (long code) • Codes longer than C/A code to minimize cross correlation • Separated by time -- Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) • Overcome some limitations of current C/A coded signals

    39. Basic Positioning: Today 6-10 m • C/A Code on L1 Before May 2000: 25-100 m

    40. Basic Positioning: Tomorrow Better resistance to interference 1-5 m Eliminates need for costly DGPS in many non-safety applications • C/A Code on L1 • L2C Code on L2 • New Code on L5

    41. Advanced Positioning: Today 10 km 2 cm accuracy • L1 Code and Carrier • L2 Carrier • Data Link

    42. Advanced Positioning: Tomorrow Faster recovery following signal interruptions (ex., under bridges) 100+ km 2 cm accuracy Fewer base stations needed • L1 Code and Carrier • L2 Code and Carrier • L5 Code and Carrier • Data Link

    43. FIX FOM 1 N 42* 01” 46.12” W 091* 38’ 54.36” EL + 00862 ft 3 menu 1 ON 2 4 5 6 7 WPT 8 POS 9 NAV CLR MARK 0 OFF NUM LOCK ZEROIZE Rockwell GPS III The GPS III System Maintain Space User Service Second Civil Signal Third Civil Signal • Relook at entire GPS architecture to: • Achieve long term GPS performance goals • Reduce long term total ownership costs • Ensure GPS is synergized with • Military and civil needs/systems • Possible augmentation opportunities • Build best GPS system for the next 30 years

    44. GPS Modernization at a Glance Increasing System Capabilities Increasing Civil/Defense Benefit NAVWAR Capable Full Civil Rqmts Add’l Capabilities New Civil Signal – L5 L2C on L2 M-Code (Earth) SA Set to 0 Basic GPS GPS III • GPS-III: • Improved Anti-jam (+20dB) • Increased Accuracy • Greater Availability • Controlled Integrity • Greater Survivability • Other Transformational needs • Blue Force Tracking • Nav-related Messaging • Responsive Ops GPS IIA/IIR GPS IIR-M, IIF • Standard Service (~100 m) • Precise Service (~16 m) • Two Nav frequencies • L1: Civil (C/A) &Precise (P) Code • L2: P-Code • IIR-M: Improved on all IIA capabilities and added • 2nd Civil Signal on L2 • New L1 & L2 M-Code • IIF: IIR-M capability and: • Add 3rd Civil Signal on L5

    45. International Cooperation

    46. International Cooperation • U.S. GPS Policy of 1996 directed State Department to pursue cooperation with other nations to promote peaceful uses of GPS, establish it as world standard • Talks occurred with Russia (GLONASS), Japan (MSAS), Europe (EGNOS) • September 1998: Joint statement on GPS cooperation signed with Japan

    47. U.S. Principles for Cooperation • Seamless interoperability with GPS • No direct user fees for safety critical services • Open market access (non-discrimination) • Equal access to signal specifications • Equal access to user markets (free trade) • Market driven competition • Free choice for end users • Spectrum protection • Protection of national security interests

    48. Official U.S. Position on Galileo • Modernized GPS service will be sufficient to meet user needs worldwide • If Galileo does proceed, the U.S. could see benefits if it is designed to be truly interoperable with GPS • U.S. is waiting to see what path Galileo takes -- many open questions remain unanswered • Basic U.S. position has not changed since first articulated in 1999

    49. Unanswered Questions about Galileo • How viable is the business case? • Will European governments help generate revenue streams through regulations and standards that effectively mandate use of Galileo? • Will Galileo signals interfere with GPS? • Will the information needed for receiver production be made equally available to all manufacturers? • Will Galileo take on a strategic military role? • How will Europe prevent hostile misuse of Galileo?

    50. Additional Questions • Will the encrypted levels of service be truly interoperable with the free, safety-of-life services? • As EGNOS becomes integrated into Galileo, will it continue to provide GPS data vital to aviation? • How will Europe protect the sensitive encryption technology used?