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The Global Positioning System A Worldwide Information Utility. April 11, 2002 Jason Y. Kim Office of Space Commercialization U.S. Department of Commerce Overview. What is GPS? Applications & Markets GPS Modernization International Cooperation Spectrum Protection.

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The global positioning system a worldwide information utility l.jpg

The Global Positioning SystemA Worldwide Information Utility

April 11, 2002

Jason Y. KimOffice of Space CommercializationU.S. Department of

Overview l.jpg

  • What is GPS?

  • Applications & Markets

  • GPS Modernization

  • International Cooperation

  • Spectrum Protection

The system l.jpg
The System

  • 24+ satellites operated by USAF provide 24-hour, all-weather, global coverage

  • Satellites are equipped with atomic clocks

  • Precise time signals are broadcast on L-band radio frequencies

  • Four satellite signals enable receivers to triangulate position

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How It Works

  • Satellites broadcast

    • • Precise time

    • • Orbit data

    • • Satellite health

  • Receiver measures time delay from satellites, and by triangulation calculates

    • • Location

    • • Elevation

    • • Velocity

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GPS is a Dual-Use System

  • Cold War spinoff

    • Developed in 1970s-1980s to support Allied forces

    • Prominent in Gulf War, Kosovo

    • After KAL-007, civilians gained free access to Standard Positioning Service

  • Commercial use now dwarfs military use

  • GPS policy is managed at a national level by the Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB)

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Interagency GPS Executive Board








Joint Chiefs of Staff


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United States GPS Policy

  • Presidential Decision Directive signed in 1996, endorsed by Congress in 1998

  • GPS Standard Positioning Service to remain free of direct user fees

  • U.S. to promote acceptance and use of GPS as a world standard

  • Selective Availability -- ended May 2000

  • IGEB to manage GPS as a national asset

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United States GPS Policy, cont’d.

  • Encourage private sector investment in/use of GPS technologies and services

  • Promote safety and efficiency in transportation and other fields

  • Promote international cooperation in using GPS for peaceful purposes

  • Advance scientific and technical capabilities

  • Strengthen and maintain national security

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Worldwide GPS Hardware Sales Expected to Exceed $9B by 2002



Source: OSC, 2001

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Global Sales by Market Segment

$ Millions

Source: ITA, 1998

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Car Navigation

  • On-board navigation

  • Fleet management

  • Roadside assistance

  • Stolen vehicle recovery

  • Enhanced services

  • Mass market dominated by Japan

  • Dataquest: Unit sales of chips for car navigation to reach 11.3M in 2001

Consumer recreational l.jpg

  • Portable receivers for fishermen, hunters, hikers, cyclists, etc.

  • Recreational facilities -- golf courses, ski resorts

  • Integration of GPS into cellular phones

    • E-911 requirement

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  • Sub-centimeter accuracy

  • 100%-300% savings in time, cost, & labor

    • Control survey point: $10,000 in 1986; $250 in 1997

  • Rural electrification

  • Telecom tower placement

  • Pipelines

  • Oil, gas, and mineral exploration

  • Flood plain mapping

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Tracking/Machine Control

  • Package/cargo delivery

  • Fleet and asset management

  • Theft recovery

  • Public safety and services

  • Farming, mining, and construction equipment

  • DGPS/RTK required for many applications

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Public Services

  • City planning

  • Transportation infrastructure

    • Road Billing Network (ROBIN)

    • Snowplows

  • Emergency response

    • Law enforcement

    • Fire fighting

    • Search and rescue

    • Paramedics

    • Disaster relief

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  • GPS approved for en-route navigation

  • More efficient flight routing leads to fuel savings

  • Better tracking of aircraft enhances safety

  • Closer spacing of planes increases airspace capacity

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Maritime Navigation

  • GPS-based vessel tracking and traffic management maximizes effectiveness of waterways

  • Improved safety increases maritime commerce

  • Maritime DGPS service for enhanced accuracy and safety available in 34 countries

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Original Equipment Manufacturers

  • Chipsets

  • Electronic boards

  • Antennas, components

  • Standalone receivers

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  • GPS is a recognized NATO standard

  • GPS is required on all U.S. military systems

  • Precision munitions widely used during Gulf War, Kosovo

Timing l.jpg

  • GPS offers an inexpensive alternative to costly, high maintenance timing equipment

  • Telecommunications network synchronization & management

    • Phones, pagers, wireless systems

    • LANs, WANs, Internet

  • Financial transactions

  • Electrical power grid management & fault location

  • Digital signatures for e-commerce

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Scientific Research

  • Monitoring geological change

    • Glaciers, tectonic plates, earthquakes, volcanoes

  • Wildlife behavior

  • Atmospheric modeling

    • Water vapor content

  • Oceanic studies

    • Tidal patterns

    • Surface mapping

  • Time transfer

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Environmental Management

  • Forestry

  • Wetlands management

  • Natural resource management

  • Fisheries boundary enforcement

  • Endangered species and habitat preservation

  • Hazardous material cleanup

    • Oil spills, toxic waste

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Emerging GPS Applications

  • Entrepreneurs and scientific researchers invent new applications almost every day

  • Higher precision is necessary for many cutting-edge applications

    • Differential GPS (DGPS)

    • Relative DGPS

    • Carrier phase positioning

    • Real-Time Kinematic (RTK)

    • Post-processing

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Precision Agriculture

  • Maximize use of resources

    • Optimized plowing of crop rows

    • Tailored applications of seeds, fertilizer, water, pesticides

    • Improved management of land, machinery, personnel, time

    • Greater crop yields

    • Net benefit: $5-14 per acre

  • Minimize environmental impacts

    • Localized identification and treatment of distressed crops reduces chemical use

    • Precise leveling of fields prevents fluid runoff

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Open Pit Mining

  • Enhanced management of assets, equipment

  • Progress tracked in real-time, remotely

  • Improved machine control saves time, lowers maintenance and fuel consumption, prevents accidents

  • Rapid surveying for drilling blast holes

  • Smaller, more empowered workforce

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Space Applications

  • Improved orbit and attitude control for spacecraft, International Space Station

  • Space Station return vehicle

  • Advance Land Observing Satellite uses GPS to calibrate high resolution radar maps

  • Satellite formation flying

  • Space launch range safety

Construction l.jpg

  • Machinery, asset, and personnel management

  • Rapid surveys for laying foundation piles, etc.

  • Accident prevention

  • Remote control of machinery possible

    • Japanese volcano dam

GPS/RTK technology was used in the

construction of the Øresund Bridge

between Denmark and Sweden

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The Market is Wide Open

  • Civil signals are freely available, right now

  • Openly published GPS specifications allow anyone to build receivers (no licensing fees)

  • Hardware is becoming a commodity

  • Huge potential exists in value-added services

    • Software development

    • Embedded applications

    • Localized GIS databases

    • Internet integration

    • Wireless markets

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Unit Cost of Receivers is Falling at ~30% Per Year











Source: GPS Industry Council, 1995

Background l.jpg

  • 1996 Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) and 1998/99 Vice Presidential announcements committed US to modernization and improvement path

    • Selective Availability (SA) turned to zero NLT 2006

    • Two new civil signals and new military signals

    • Free world-wide use

  • Move from studies to action initiated in FY 2000

    • SA discontinued in May 2000

    • Deputy Secretary of Defense directed changes to existing and future satellites

    • OMB directed TOA transfer from DoT to DoD

    • Block IIF program terminated at 12 satellites and GPS III development began

Modernization Now in Full Swing

Modernized signal evolution l.jpg
















Modernized Signal Evolution

Present Signal

(Block II/IIA/IIR)

2nd Civil; M-Code

Block IIR-M

3rd Civil

Block IIF

1176 MHz


1227 MHz


1575 MHz


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Second Civil Signal (L2C) - Block IIR-M Satellites

First launch in 2003, then every satellite thereafter

Provides a redundant signal for civil users

Improved continuity in case L1 signal reception is lost

Improved accuracy via dual-frequency ionosphere correction

Wide-lane for extremely-precise local area differential GPS

Third Civil Signal (L5) - Block IIF Satellites

First launch in 2005, then subsequent satellites thereafter

Provides redundant dual-frequency capability for civil users

Improved continuity in case L1 or L2 signal reception is lost

Improved accuracy via triple-frequency ionosphere correction

Tri-lane for ultra-precise local area differential GPS

Provides an interference-resistant signal for civil users

New Civil Signal Rollout

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New Civil Code on L2

  • Advantages of a New Signal

    • Improved cross-correlation properties

    • Improved tracking capability -- 3dB higher power than Coarse Acquisition (C/A) on L2

  • Signal Characteristics

    • Two codes: one with data (medium code); one without (long code)

    • Codes longer than C/A code to minimize cross correlation

    • Separated by time -- Time Division Multiplexed (TDM)

    • Overcome some limitations of current C/A coded signals

Basic positioning today l.jpg
Basic Positioning: Today

6-10 m

  • C/A Code on L1

Before May 2000:

25-100 m

Basic positioning tomorrow l.jpg
Basic Positioning: Tomorrow

Better resistance to interference

1-5 m

Eliminates need for costly DGPS in many non-safety applications

  • C/A Code on L1

  • L2C Code on L2

  • New Code on L5

Advanced positioning today l.jpg
Advanced Positioning: Today

10 km

2 cm accuracy

  • L1 Code and Carrier

  • L2 Carrier

  • Data Link

Advanced positioning tomorrow l.jpg
Advanced Positioning: Tomorrow

Faster recovery following signal interruptions (ex., under bridges)

100+ km

2 cm accuracy

Fewer base stations needed

  • L1 Code and Carrier

  • L2 Code and Carrier

  • L5 Code and Carrier

  • Data Link

Gps iii l.jpg


N 42* 01” 46.12”

W 091* 38’ 54.36”

EL + 00862 ft



1 ON






















Maintain Space User


Second Civil Signal

Third Civil Signal

  • Relook at entire GPS architecture to:

    • Achieve long term GPS performance goals

    • Reduce long term total ownership costs

  • Ensure GPS is synergized with

    • Military and civil needs/systems

    • Possible augmentation opportunities

  • Build best GPS system for the next 30 years

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GPS Modernization at a Glance

Increasing System Capabilities

Increasing Civil/Defense Benefit

NAVWAR Capable

Full Civil Rqmts

Add’l Capabilities

New Civil Signal – L5

L2C on L2

M-Code (Earth)

SA Set

to 0

Basic GPS


  • GPS-III:

  • Improved Anti-jam (+20dB)

  • Increased Accuracy

  • Greater Availability

  • Controlled Integrity

  • Greater Survivability

  • Other Transformational needs

  • Blue Force Tracking

  • Nav-related Messaging

  • Responsive Ops



  • Standard Service (~100 m)

  • Precise Service (~16 m)

  • Two Nav frequencies

  • L1: Civil (C/A) &Precise (P) Code

  • L2: P-Code

  • IIR-M: Improved on all IIA capabilities and added

  • 2nd Civil Signal on L2

  • New L1 & L2 M-Code

  • IIF: IIR-M capability and:

  • Add 3rd Civil Signal on L5

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International Cooperation

  • U.S. GPS Policy of 1996 directed State Department to pursue cooperation with other nations to promote peaceful uses of GPS, establish it as world standard

  • Talks occurred with Russia (GLONASS), Japan (MSAS), Europe (EGNOS)

  • September 1998: Joint statement on GPS cooperation signed with Japan

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U.S. Principles for Cooperation

  • Seamless interoperability with GPS

  • No direct user fees for safety critical services

  • Open market access (non-discrimination)

    • Equal access to signal specifications

    • Equal access to user markets (free trade)

    • Market driven competition

    • Free choice for end users

  • Spectrum protection

  • Protection of national security interests

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Official U.S. Position on Galileo

  • Modernized GPS service will be sufficient to meet user needs worldwide

  • If Galileo does proceed, the U.S. could see benefits if it is designed to be truly interoperable with GPS

  • U.S. is waiting to see what path Galileo takes -- many open questions remain unanswered

  • Basic U.S. position has not changed since first articulated in 1999

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Unanswered Questions about Galileo

  • How viable is the business case?

  • Will European governments help generate revenue streams through regulations and standards that effectively mandate use of Galileo?

  • Will Galileo signals interfere with GPS?

  • Will the information needed for receiver production be made equally available to all manufacturers?

  • Will Galileo take on a strategic military role?

  • How will Europe prevent hostile misuse of Galileo?

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Additional Questions

  • Will the encrypted levels of service be truly interoperable with the free, safety-of-life services?

  • As EGNOS becomes integrated into Galileo, will it continue to provide GPS data vital to aviation?

  • How will Europe protect the sensitive encryption technology used?

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U.S. Approach Toward Cooperation

  • Phased approach to reflect growing complexity of GPS-Galileo interaction over time

    • Phase 1: Framework agreement outlining overarching principles for cooperation during Galileo development

    • Phase 2: Establishment of working groups

    • Phase 3: Follow-on agreement addressing longer-term issues and operational interactions once Galileo goes online

  • Current U.S. stance: must have framework agreement in place before technical discussions

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U.S. Goals for Cooperation

  • Protect interests and investments of GPS user base

    • No degradation of GPS service

    • No user fees

    • Freedom of choice for end users

    • Lower costs through free market competition

    • Interoperability and backwards compatibility

    • No constraint on future GPS evolution

  • Protect national security interests

    • DoD/NATO denial capabilities

    • No overlay of M-Code

    • Control technology transfer and proliferation

    • Move any discussion of military Galileo to NATO

  • Ensure level playing field for commerce

  • Maximize benefits of combined GPS-Galileo service

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GPS Spectrum Importance

  • Radio interference affects a wide range of users and limits growth of new capabilities and applications

  • Without backbone GPS signals, derived performances and safety of life navigation services will not function

  • GPS bands must be protected both internationally and domestically

    • ITU (one country, one vote)


Spectrum use l.jpg
Spectrum Use

  • GPS service frequencies

    • Radionavigation satellite signals currently provided in two frequency bands: 1575 MHZ (L1) and 1227 MHz (L2)

  • New civil GPS frequencies

    • New civil signals to be added at 1227 MHz (L2) and 1176 MHz (L5)

    • L5 signal to feature higher power and ARNS protection to support safety of life navigation

    • Three civil signals will increase reliability

    • Space-to-space service (satellite control & positioning)

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Current Spectrum Issues

  • International

    • Galileo proposal to overlay L1

      • U.S. objectives: No impact or degradation to current users, no overlay of future M-Code

    • Power Flux Density limits

  • Domestic

    • Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology

      • Interim FCC rules favorable to GPS -- but danger remains

      • Trying to protect GPS spectrum

    • General concerns over noise floor

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For Additional Information

Interagency GPS Executive Board4800B Herbert C. Hoover BuildingWashington, D.C. 482-5809