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The Global Positioning System A Worldwide Information Utility. April 11, 2002 Jason Y. Kim Office of Space Commercialization U.S. Department of Commerce Overview. What is GPS? Applications & Markets GPS Modernization International Cooperation Spectrum Protection.

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the global positioning system a worldwide information utility

The Global Positioning SystemA Worldwide Information Utility

April 11, 2002

Jason Y. KimOffice of Space CommercializationU.S. Department of

  • What is GPS?
  • Applications & Markets
  • GPS Modernization
  • International Cooperation
  • Spectrum Protection
the system
The System
  • 24+ satellites operated by USAF provide 24-hour, all-weather, global coverage
  • Satellites are equipped with atomic clocks
  • Precise time signals are broadcast on L-band radio frequencies
  • Four satellite signals enable receivers to triangulate position
how it works
How It Works
  • Satellites broadcast
    • • Precise time
    • • Orbit data
    • • Satellite health
  • Receiver measures time delay from satellites, and by triangulation calculates
    • • Location
    • • Elevation
    • • Velocity
gps is a dual use system
GPS is a Dual-Use System
  • Cold War spinoff
    • Developed in 1970s-1980s to support Allied forces
    • Prominent in Gulf War, Kosovo
    • After KAL-007, civilians gained free access to Standard Positioning Service
  • Commercial use now dwarfs military use
  • GPS policy is managed at a national level by the Interagency GPS Executive Board (IGEB)
interagency gps executive board
Interagency GPS Executive Board








Joint Chiefs of Staff


united states gps policy
United States GPS Policy
  • Presidential Decision Directive signed in 1996, endorsed by Congress in 1998
  • GPS Standard Positioning Service to remain free of direct user fees
  • U.S. to promote acceptance and use of GPS as a world standard
  • Selective Availability -- ended May 2000
  • IGEB to manage GPS as a national asset
united states gps policy cont d
United States GPS Policy, cont’d.
  • Encourage private sector investment in/use of GPS technologies and services
  • Promote safety and efficiency in transportation and other fields
  • Promote international cooperation in using GPS for peaceful purposes
  • Advance scientific and technical capabilities
  • Strengthen and maintain national security
global sales by market segment
Global Sales by Market Segment

$ Millions

Source: ITA, 1998

car navigation
Car Navigation
  • On-board navigation
  • Fleet management
  • Roadside assistance
  • Stolen vehicle recovery
  • Enhanced services
  • Mass market dominated by Japan
  • Dataquest: Unit sales of chips for car navigation to reach 11.3M in 2001
consumer recreational
  • Portable receivers for fishermen, hunters, hikers, cyclists, etc.
  • Recreational facilities -- golf courses, ski resorts
  • Integration of GPS into cellular phones
    • E-911 requirement
surveying mapping gis
  • Sub-centimeter accuracy
  • 100%-300% savings in time, cost, & labor
    • Control survey point: $10,000 in 1986; $250 in 1997
  • Rural electrification
  • Telecom tower placement
  • Pipelines
  • Oil, gas, and mineral exploration
  • Flood plain mapping
tracking machine control
Tracking/Machine Control
  • Package/cargo delivery
  • Fleet and asset management
  • Theft recovery
  • Public safety and services
  • Farming, mining, and construction equipment
  • DGPS/RTK required for many applications
public services
Public Services
  • City planning
  • Transportation infrastructure
    • Road Billing Network (ROBIN)
    • Snowplows
  • Emergency response
    • Law enforcement
    • Fire fighting
    • Search and rescue
    • Paramedics
    • Disaster relief
  • GPS approved for en-route navigation
  • More efficient flight routing leads to fuel savings
  • Better tracking of aircraft enhances safety
  • Closer spacing of planes increases airspace capacity
maritime navigation
Maritime Navigation
  • GPS-based vessel tracking and traffic management maximizes effectiveness of waterways
  • Improved safety increases maritime commerce
  • Maritime DGPS service for enhanced accuracy and safety available in 34 countries
original equipment manufacturers
Original Equipment Manufacturers
  • Chipsets
  • Electronic boards
  • Antennas, components
  • Standalone receivers
  • GPS is a recognized NATO standard
  • GPS is required on all U.S. military systems
  • Precision munitions widely used during Gulf War, Kosovo
  • GPS offers an inexpensive alternative to costly, high maintenance timing equipment
  • Telecommunications network synchronization & management
    • Phones, pagers, wireless systems
    • LANs, WANs, Internet
  • Financial transactions
  • Electrical power grid management & fault location
  • Digital signatures for e-commerce
scientific research
Scientific Research
  • Monitoring geological change
    • Glaciers, tectonic plates, earthquakes, volcanoes
  • Wildlife behavior
  • Atmospheric modeling
    • Water vapor content
  • Oceanic studies
    • Tidal patterns
    • Surface mapping
  • Time transfer
environmental management
Environmental Management
  • Forestry
  • Wetlands management
  • Natural resource management
  • Fisheries boundary enforcement
  • Endangered species and habitat preservation
  • Hazardous material cleanup
    • Oil spills, toxic waste
emerging gps applications
Emerging GPS Applications
  • Entrepreneurs and scientific researchers invent new applications almost every day
  • Higher precision is necessary for many cutting-edge applications
    • Differential GPS (DGPS)
    • Relative DGPS
    • Carrier phase positioning
    • Real-Time Kinematic (RTK)
    • Post-processing
precision agriculture
Precision Agriculture
  • Maximize use of resources
    • Optimized plowing of crop rows
    • Tailored applications of seeds, fertilizer, water, pesticides
    • Improved management of land, machinery, personnel, time
    • Greater crop yields
    • Net benefit: $5-14 per acre
  • Minimize environmental impacts
    • Localized identification and treatment of distressed crops reduces chemical use
    • Precise leveling of fields prevents fluid runoff
open pit mining
Open Pit Mining
  • Enhanced management of assets, equipment
  • Progress tracked in real-time, remotely
  • Improved machine control saves time, lowers maintenance and fuel consumption, prevents accidents
  • Rapid surveying for drilling blast holes
  • Smaller, more empowered workforce
space applications
Space Applications
  • Improved orbit and attitude control for spacecraft, International Space Station
  • Space Station return vehicle
  • Advance Land Observing Satellite uses GPS to calibrate high resolution radar maps
  • Satellite formation flying
  • Space launch range safety
  • Machinery, asset, and personnel management
  • Rapid surveys for laying foundation piles, etc.
  • Accident prevention
  • Remote control of machinery possible
    • Japanese volcano dam

GPS/RTK technology was used in the

construction of the Øresund Bridge

between Denmark and Sweden

the market is wide open
The Market is Wide Open
  • Civil signals are freely available, right now
  • Openly published GPS specifications allow anyone to build receivers (no licensing fees)
  • Hardware is becoming a commodity
  • Huge potential exists in value-added services
    • Software development
    • Embedded applications
    • Localized GIS databases
    • Internet integration
    • Wireless markets
unit cost of receivers is falling at 30 per year
Unit Cost of Receivers is Falling at ~30% Per Year











Source: GPS Industry Council, 1995

  • 1996 Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) and 1998/99 Vice Presidential announcements committed US to modernization and improvement path
    • Selective Availability (SA) turned to zero NLT 2006
    • Two new civil signals and new military signals
    • Free world-wide use
  • Move from studies to action initiated in FY 2000
    • SA discontinued in May 2000
    • Deputy Secretary of Defense directed changes to existing and future satellites
    • OMB directed TOA transfer from DoT to DoD
    • Block IIF program terminated at 12 satellites and GPS III development began

Modernization Now in Full Swing

modernized signal evolution
















Modernized Signal Evolution

Present Signal

(Block II/IIA/IIR)

2nd Civil; M-Code

Block IIR-M

3rd Civil

Block IIF

1176 MHz


1227 MHz


1575 MHz


new civil signal rollout
Second Civil Signal (L2C) - Block IIR-M Satellites

First launch in 2003, then every satellite thereafter

Provides a redundant signal for civil users

Improved continuity in case L1 signal reception is lost

Improved accuracy via dual-frequency ionosphere correction

Wide-lane for extremely-precise local area differential GPS

Third Civil Signal (L5) - Block IIF Satellites

First launch in 2005, then subsequent satellites thereafter

Provides redundant dual-frequency capability for civil users

Improved continuity in case L1 or L2 signal reception is lost

Improved accuracy via triple-frequency ionosphere correction

Tri-lane for ultra-precise local area differential GPS

Provides an interference-resistant signal for civil users

New Civil Signal Rollout
new civil code on l2
New Civil Code on L2
  • Advantages of a New Signal
    • Improved cross-correlation properties
    • Improved tracking capability -- 3dB higher power than Coarse Acquisition (C/A) on L2
  • Signal Characteristics
    • Two codes: one with data (medium code); one without (long code)
    • Codes longer than C/A code to minimize cross correlation
    • Separated by time -- Time Division Multiplexed (TDM)
    • Overcome some limitations of current C/A coded signals
basic positioning today
Basic Positioning: Today

6-10 m

  • C/A Code on L1

Before May 2000:

25-100 m

basic positioning tomorrow
Basic Positioning: Tomorrow

Better resistance to interference

1-5 m

Eliminates need for costly DGPS in many non-safety applications

  • C/A Code on L1
  • L2C Code on L2
  • New Code on L5
advanced positioning today
Advanced Positioning: Today

10 km

2 cm accuracy

  • L1 Code and Carrier
  • L2 Carrier
  • Data Link
advanced positioning tomorrow
Advanced Positioning: Tomorrow

Faster recovery following signal interruptions (ex., under bridges)

100+ km

2 cm accuracy

Fewer base stations needed

  • L1 Code and Carrier
  • L2 Code and Carrier
  • L5 Code and Carrier
  • Data Link
gps iii


N 42* 01” 46.12”

W 091* 38’ 54.36”

EL + 00862 ft



1 ON






















Maintain Space User


Second Civil Signal

Third Civil Signal

  • Relook at entire GPS architecture to:
    • Achieve long term GPS performance goals
    • Reduce long term total ownership costs
  • Ensure GPS is synergized with
    • Military and civil needs/systems
    • Possible augmentation opportunities
  • Build best GPS system for the next 30 years
gps modernization at a glance
GPS Modernization at a Glance

Increasing System Capabilities

Increasing Civil/Defense Benefit

NAVWAR Capable

Full Civil Rqmts

Add’l Capabilities

New Civil Signal – L5

L2C on L2

M-Code (Earth)

SA Set

to 0

Basic GPS


  • GPS-III:
  • Improved Anti-jam (+20dB)
  • Increased Accuracy
  • Greater Availability
  • Controlled Integrity
  • Greater Survivability
  • Other Transformational needs
  • Blue Force Tracking
  • Nav-related Messaging
  • Responsive Ops



  • Standard Service (~100 m)
  • Precise Service (~16 m)
  • Two Nav frequencies
  • L1: Civil (C/A) &Precise (P) Code
  • L2: P-Code
  • IIR-M: Improved on all IIA capabilities and added
  • 2nd Civil Signal on L2
  • New L1 & L2 M-Code
  • IIF: IIR-M capability and:
  • Add 3rd Civil Signal on L5
international cooperation46
International Cooperation
  • U.S. GPS Policy of 1996 directed State Department to pursue cooperation with other nations to promote peaceful uses of GPS, establish it as world standard
  • Talks occurred with Russia (GLONASS), Japan (MSAS), Europe (EGNOS)
  • September 1998: Joint statement on GPS cooperation signed with Japan
u s principles for cooperation
U.S. Principles for Cooperation
  • Seamless interoperability with GPS
  • No direct user fees for safety critical services
  • Open market access (non-discrimination)
    • Equal access to signal specifications
    • Equal access to user markets (free trade)
    • Market driven competition
    • Free choice for end users
  • Spectrum protection
  • Protection of national security interests
official u s position on galileo
Official U.S. Position on Galileo
  • Modernized GPS service will be sufficient to meet user needs worldwide
  • If Galileo does proceed, the U.S. could see benefits if it is designed to be truly interoperable with GPS
  • U.S. is waiting to see what path Galileo takes -- many open questions remain unanswered
  • Basic U.S. position has not changed since first articulated in 1999
unanswered questions about galileo
Unanswered Questions about Galileo
  • How viable is the business case?
  • Will European governments help generate revenue streams through regulations and standards that effectively mandate use of Galileo?
  • Will Galileo signals interfere with GPS?
  • Will the information needed for receiver production be made equally available to all manufacturers?
  • Will Galileo take on a strategic military role?
  • How will Europe prevent hostile misuse of Galileo?
additional questions
Additional Questions
  • Will the encrypted levels of service be truly interoperable with the free, safety-of-life services?
  • As EGNOS becomes integrated into Galileo, will it continue to provide GPS data vital to aviation?
  • How will Europe protect the sensitive encryption technology used?
u s approach toward cooperation
U.S. Approach Toward Cooperation
  • Phased approach to reflect growing complexity of GPS-Galileo interaction over time
    • Phase 1: Framework agreement outlining overarching principles for cooperation during Galileo development
    • Phase 2: Establishment of working groups
    • Phase 3: Follow-on agreement addressing longer-term issues and operational interactions once Galileo goes online
  • Current U.S. stance: must have framework agreement in place before technical discussions
u s goals for cooperation
U.S. Goals for Cooperation
  • Protect interests and investments of GPS user base
    • No degradation of GPS service
    • No user fees
    • Freedom of choice for end users
    • Lower costs through free market competition
    • Interoperability and backwards compatibility
    • No constraint on future GPS evolution
  • Protect national security interests
    • DoD/NATO denial capabilities
    • No overlay of M-Code
    • Control technology transfer and proliferation
    • Move any discussion of military Galileo to NATO
  • Ensure level playing field for commerce
  • Maximize benefits of combined GPS-Galileo service
gps spectrum importance
GPS Spectrum Importance
  • Radio interference affects a wide range of users and limits growth of new capabilities and applications
  • Without backbone GPS signals, derived performances and safety of life navigation services will not function
  • GPS bands must be protected both internationally and domestically
    • ITU (one country, one vote)
spectrum use
Spectrum Use
  • GPS service frequencies
    • Radionavigation satellite signals currently provided in two frequency bands: 1575 MHZ (L1) and 1227 MHz (L2)
  • New civil GPS frequencies
    • New civil signals to be added at 1227 MHz (L2) and 1176 MHz (L5)
    • L5 signal to feature higher power and ARNS protection to support safety of life navigation
    • Three civil signals will increase reliability
    • Space-to-space service (satellite control & positioning)
current spectrum issues
Current Spectrum Issues
  • International
    • Galileo proposal to overlay L1
      • U.S. objectives: No impact or degradation to current users, no overlay of future M-Code
    • Power Flux Density limits
  • Domestic
    • Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology
      • Interim FCC rules favorable to GPS -- but danger remains
      • Trying to protect GPS spectrum
    • General concerns over noise floor
for additional information
For Additional Information

Interagency GPS Executive Board4800B Herbert C. Hoover BuildingWashington, D.C. 482-5809