technology and its impact on the music industry l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Technology and its Impact on the Music Industry PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Technology and its Impact on the Music Industry

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 33

Technology and its Impact on the Music Industry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Technology and its Impact on the Music Industry. Tulane University Scott Aiges’ class Wednesday, December 1, 2004. Introduction: Todd Souvignier. Special Operations, Tipitina’s Foundation Coordinator of the New Orleans Music Office Co-Op ( )

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Technology and its Impact on the Music Industry' - KeelyKia

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
technology and its impact on the music industry

Technology and its Impact on the Music Industry

Tulane University

Scott Aiges’ class

Wednesday, December 1, 2004

introduction todd souvignier
Introduction: Todd Souvignier
  • Special Operations, Tipitina’s Foundation
  • Coordinator of the New Orleans Music Office Co-Op (
  • Co-Founder & CTO, Exploit Systems Inc. (
  • Author of four published books on audio technology
outline two concurrent revolutions
Production Technologies


Current Issues


Delivery Technologies


Current Issues


Outline: Two Concurrent Revolutions
thesis a dual edge
Thesis: A Dual Edge
  • Technological innovation’s downside:
    • Obsolescence
    • Frictional unemployment
    • Disruption of existing business models
    • Property disputes
    • May enhance power structures
thesis a dual edge5
Thesis: A Dual Edge
  • Technological innovation’s upside:
    • Efficiency
    • Standardization
    • Increased accuracy/quality
    • Improved price/performance ratios
    • Individual empowerment
    • May erode power structures
production technologies piano
Production Technologies: Piano
  • Pianoforte developed around 1720, by Bartolomeo Cristofori of Padua, Italy.
    • Replaced harpsichord as the standard keyboard instrument - “velocity sensitive”
    • Forced acceptance of Equal Temperament as the tuning standard for Western music
      • “Settled” a tuning argument that began with Pythagoreans v. Aristoxineans, circa 400 BC
production technologies horns
Production Technologies: Horns
  • Early Horns included straight trumpets made of wood, bronze and silver
    • Such as the salpinx found in Greece, and the Roman tuba, lituus, andbuccina.
  • The modern brass orchestra became feasible only after 1840, when machines capable of making consistent valves were invented.
  • Beethoven first major composer to use trombones, in his 5th and 9th symphonies.
production technologies engraving
Production Technologies: Engraving
  • Gutenberg Bible: 1455
  • Constance Gradual first fully-printed sheet music, 1473 (Germany); Used freehand wood engraving
  • Brietkopf (Germany) developed moveable type system for music in 1754
  • Lithography first used to print music in 1796, used limestone plates
  • Photolithography using zinc plates perfected 1860
production technologies copyright
Production Technologies: Copyright
  • 1709: Statute of Anne 1st British © law
  • U.S. Copyright Act of 1790: books, maps
  • Berne Convention 1887 rationalizes international copyright law (except in U.S.)
  • Sonny Bono Copyright Term Extension Act 1998 adds years, favors corporations
      • Life of Author, plus 75 - 95 years
      • Mickey Mouse would have entered public domain ~2000
production technologies electrical recording
Production Technologies: Electrical Recording
  • Electrical Recording developed by AT&T 1924, popularized by Victor as “Orthophonic”
    • Better sound quality
    • Easier recording setups
    • Music now fills the home
    • Crooners replace belters
production technologies tape recording
Production Technologies: Tape Recording
  • Magnetic Tape developed in Nazi Germany - AEG Magnetophon
  • U.S. Army Signal Corp liberates technology, delivers it to Ampex
  • Bing Crosby finances development
    • Sound Quality
    • Time Shifting
    • Editing
    • Killed the “transcription disk”
production technologies multitrack
Production Technologies: Multitrack
  • Multitrack tape recording developed by Les Paul, 1950s
  • Popularized by Beatles, late 1960s
    • Destroyed the simultaneous performance imperative
    • Allowed “one man bands” and “auteur” style of record production
    • Better sound quality
    • Eroded the studio orchestra business
production technologies synthesizers
Production Technologies: Synthesizers
  • Synthesizer developed by Moog, Buchla, others, early 1960s
  • “Switched-On Bach” by Wendy Carlos was the watershed LP
    • Inaugurated a boom era in musical electronics
    • Expanded sonic palette
    • “Replacing musicians” more hype than fact
production technologies drum machines
Production Technologies: Drum Machines
  • Drum machine introduced by Roland, Linn late 1970s
  • Cheap digital drum machines become prevalent early 1980s
    • Improved rhythmic accuracy
    • Streamlined the recording process
    • Improved price/performance
    • Eroded studio drummer business
production technologies sampling
Production Technologies: Sampling
  • Introduced by Fairlight, NED, others, mid-1970s
  • Becomes prevalent mid-1980s
    • Derivative recordings become a primary mode of popular music production
    • Touched off a firestorm of litigation
    • Biz Markee v Gilbert O’ Sullivan
    • Sample licensing: new revenue stream
production technologies computer recording
Production Technologies: Computer Recording
  • Computer-based digital multitracking developed by OSC, others, late 1980s
  • Feasible for home users mid-1990s
    • Accelerates the home recording trend
    • Improves quality of independent recordings
    • Erodes the professional studio business
    • Kills the analog multitrack business
    • End of huge recording budgets
production technologies current issues
Production Technologies: Current Issues
  • High-resolution audio
    • Faster sample rates, bigger bit depths
  • Surround mixing
    • Driven by the DVD market
  • Sampling prohibition creates inequities
  • Ease of access -> flood of bad music
    • Supply outstrips demand, now more than ever
production technologies trends
Production Technologies: Trends
  • “Mix Tapes” (usually CD-Rs) are a new enforcement priority
  • Replicators forced to become sample cops
  • Quality and price/performance will continue to improve
  • Performance/skill augmentation
delivery technologies phonograph
Delivery Technologies: Phonograph
  • Phonograph patented by Edison, 1878
  • Berliner patents disk phonograph, 1895
  • Berliner & Frank Seaman introduce spring-wound Gramophone, 1897
    • Preservation & exploitation of performances
    • Brought music into the homes of non-performers
    • Eroded the piano & sheet music industries
      • Pianos declared “obsolete” 1904
    • Eroded the live music performance business
    • Created the new role of Disk Jockey
delivery technologies radio
Delivery Technologies: Radio
  • Radio developed by Tesla, Marconi, Fessenden mid-1890s to 1906
  • Popularized as consumer entertainment by Westinghouse, others, 1920s
    • Competed with the phonograph record industry, live music performance and sheet music publishing
    • BMI formed to counteract ASCAP
      • ASCAP Strike exposes “outsider” music, 1941
    • Broadcast Prohibition 1920s - 1940
      • “Not Licensed For Broadcast” struck down by SCOTUS in RCA v Whiteman -> No Performance Right for Sound Recordings
delivery technologies vinyl
Delivery Technologies: Vinyl
  • Vinyl 12” LP and 7” 45 developed late 1940s
    • “microgroove” recordings
  • Early 1950s market confusion and sales slump
  • Industry settles on the album/single concept
    • Better sound quality than shellac
    • Better handling, durability
    • Cheaper to manufacture, transport, store
    • Taught the record business the value of obsolescence and upgrades
delivery technologies cassette
Delivery Technologies: Cassette
  • Cassette tape developed as a music delivery medium by Henry Kloss
    • Dolby NR was lynchpin - 1971: Advent 201
  • Consumers preferred cassette to 8-Track
    • Recordable medium gives consumers more control over music
    • Record business accepts format, fights home taping
    • Leads to cassette-based multitracks & the first stage of the home recording trend
    • 8-track, reel-to-reel obsolete consumer formats
delivery technologies cd
Delivery Technologies: CD
  • Compact Disc (CD) developed by Sony & Philips; Matsushita accepts standard 1981
  • Introduced to U.S. market 1983
  • Labels stop taking vinyl returns 1988
    • Better sound quality
    • Cheaper to manufacture, transport, store
    • Artists paid less
    • Higher retail & wholesale prices
    • Consumers re-purchased their collections
    • Vinyl, turntables obsolete
      • Rescued & maintained by DJs
delivery technologies dat
Delivery Technologies: DAT
  • Digital Audio Tape (DAT) - Sony 1987
  • Based on VCRs: helical scan
  • Originally envisioned as a consumer medium
    • Precipitated passage of Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 (“the DAT tax”)
    • SCMS mandated for consumer units
    • Only pros adopted DAT
    • AHRA assumes pre-emptive guilt, creates new revenue stream for labels
    • “Piracy” becomes bogeyman
delivery technologies web
Delivery Technologies: Web
  • Tim Berners-Lee invents WWW at CERN, 1990
  • Military/Educational Arpanet opened to general public, renamed Internet, 1994
    • Advent of the dot-com domain
    • Artists (and virtually all other businesses) forced to migrate to computers, use email, have Web sites
    • Inexpensive, instant self-publishing allows a proliferation of new voices, increases the general noise level
    • Music became a factor w/ advent of MP3 format and high-speed service
delivery technologies mp3
Delivery Technologies: MP3
  • Moving Picture Experts Group publishes MPEG-1 Specification, 1993
  • MPEG-1, Audio Layer 3 (aka MP3) adopted by Internet music hobbyists
    • RIAA v Diamond Multimedia (the “Rio case”) establishes exemption for computer devices
    • popularizes format with artists
    • Spurs development of competing compressed formats, including WMA, AAC
    • Erosion of label control over distribution
    • Overall DECREASE in sound quality
delivery technologies p2p
Delivery Technologies: P2P
  • Shawn Fanning writes Napster, first peer-to-peer search/retrieval system, 1999
  • Justin Frankel writes Gnutella, first distributed P2P application, 2000
  • Many descendants, Bit Torrent, eDonkey, etc.
    • Practically all music available for free, instantly
    • Erosion of label control over distribution
    • DECREASE in sound quality (see MP3)
    • Disruption of recording industry business models
    • Record industry begins suing its own customers
    • Internet piracy becomes hot-button (or red herring?)
delivery technologies streaming
Delivery Technologies: Streaming
  • Apple Computer introduces QuickTime, 1991
  • RealAudio introduced, 1995
  • Yahoo buys for $5 Billion, 1999
  • DPRA establishes performance rights for sound recordings, 1995
  • CARP negotiation -> streaming royalties, 2002
    • Immediate unplugging of most streams
    • RIAA spin-off SoundExchange becomes collector of a new private “tax”
delivery technologies issues
Delivery Technologies: Issues
  • Ownership called into question
  • Music consumers demonized as “pirates” - a generation criminalized
  • Opens the doorway for taxing ISPs, other computer products/services
  • Along with anti-terrorism, anti-piracy efforts risk establishing a police state
delivery technologies trends
Delivery Technologies: Trends
  • Digital Rights Management (DRM) cornerstone of for-profit online music businesses
  • Labels segue from CD business to marketing/management
  • DVDs, Merch, personal appearances, licensing are main products
  • Pre-recorded music -> a loss leader
  • P2P -> entrenched distribution venue
delivery technologies trends31
Delivery Technologies: Trends
  • Verizon decision overruled
  • Courts rejecting mass-John Doe suits
  • Grokster decision legitimizes P2P apps
  • Labels now willing to sell into P2P
    • Snocap, WurldMedia
  • Licensed music services gaining traction; still less than 5% of the market
  • CD sales rebounding slightly
  • Music industry will co-opt P2P over time
thank you
Thank You

Todd Souvignier

Tipitina’s Foundation

  • New Orleans Music Office Co-Op
  • 4040 Tulane Avenue (at Carrollton), 483-2880
  • Personal:
  • Email:
recommended reading
Recommended Reading
  • Daniel Gross, “Does a Free Download Equal a Lost Sale?” New York Times, November 21, 2004
  • Editorial, “Music’s Brighter Future” The Economist, October 28, 2004