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England and Wales Designated Protected natural areas. Notes from JH adapted by DMB February 2004. England and Wales. England and Wales Relief Map. ‘National Parks’. Definition of National Park by IUCN Category II. Protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation

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england and wales designated protected natural areas

England and Wales Designated Protected natural areas

Notes from JH adapted by DMB

February 2004


england and wales
England and Wales

England and Wales Relief Map


definition of national park by iucn category ii
Definition of National Park by IUCNCategory II
  • Protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation
  • Definition: Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to
  • (a) protect the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for present and future generations,
  • (b) exclude exploitation or occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area and
  • (c) provide a foundation for spiritual, scientific, educational, recreational and visitor opportunities, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible.


category v protected landscape seascape
CATEGORY V : Protected Landscape/Seascape:
  • Protected area managed mainly for landscape/seascape conservation and recreation
  • Definition: Area of land, with coast and sea as appropriate, where the interaction of people and nature over time has produced an area of distinct character with significant aesthetic, ecological and/or cultural value, and often with high biological diversity.
  • Safeguarding the integrity of this traditional interaction is vital to the protection, maintenance and evolution of such an area.


national park designation uk
National Park Designation UK
  • National Parks were proposed in reports in the 1940s.
  • They were established in 1949 through the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act together with AONBs and Nature Reserves
  • The proposed National Parks Commission as a powerful overseeing organisation was rejected and Local Planning Authorities took on the planning role.
  • The National Parks Commission was set up with an advisory role.


planning changes
Planning Changes
  • In 1972 The Local Government Act instituted a two-tier system of local government.
  • From 1974 county and district councils split planning functions.
  • County Councils prepared structure plans and district councils most local plans.
  • National Park functions had to be redistributed, county council national park committees took on the main planning role. The Peak District and Lake District had their own planning boards.


area and purpose
Area and Purpose
  • National Parks cover 13,730km² or 9% of the area of England and Wales.
  • The 1995 Environment Act states the purpose of National Parks relates to ‘quiet enjoyment’ and the understanding and conservation of wildlife and cultural heritage. In cases of conflict conservation overrides public access and enjoyment.
  • They have a duty to take full account of local communities’ economic and social needs


further planning changes
Further Planning Changes
  • From April 1996 in Wales and April 1997 in England an independent planning authority was set up for all national parks.
  • Each new authority is the sole planning authority for the area of the park.
  • It is responsible for the maintenance of a structure plan and local plan for the area.
  • It is encouraged to make voluntary arrangements with other local planning authorities in the development of the structure plan


planning requirements of a national park planning authority
Planning requirements of a National Park Planning Authority
  • Preparation of a single park-wide local plan.
  • Separate mineral and waste local plans.
  • The use of enhanced development criteria to develop a more critical response to planning applications than elsewhere, including agricultural development.
  • Restrictions include: larger extensions to dwellings; industrial buildings and warehouses; roof extensions; stone cladding; satellite dishes in some areas;microwave antennae; excavations and engineering operations.
  • The test? - is it in the public interest?


the implications of positive management
The implications of positive management
  • 75% of funds come from central government.
  • 25% from Local Authorities grant-aided by Government
  • Agreements with local landowners to achieve management of the land.
  • There are specific powers for the acquisition and restoration of derelict land.
  • Coping with the overriding weight given to agricultural and forestry production.


restrictions on public access
Restrictions on public access
  • National Parks have to cope with more than 100 million visitors per year
  • Population of the Parks nearly 250,000
  • Total income is from government and the European Union


exmoor national park http www exmoor nationalpark gov uk traditional htm
Exmoor National Park http://www.exmoor-nationalpark.gov.uk/traditional.htm
  • Exmoor is one of eleven large areas in England and Wales that are specially protected as our finest landscapes and an important part of our national heritage.
  • Exmoor covers 267 square miles and is home to over 10,500 people.
  • By working together with local people we can ensure that Exmoor remains a place to live, visit, work and enjoy.


wye valley area of outstanding natural beauty aonb
Wye Valley Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty AONB

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