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The Failure of Pregnancy PowerPoint Presentation
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The Failure of Pregnancy

The Failure of Pregnancy

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The Failure of Pregnancy

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  1. The Failure of Pregnancy In some cases, a baby cannot come to our world, there are three reasons for this. They are infertility, miscarriage and contraception. We will explain each of them to you in the following. 1

  2. Infertility Infertility always comes from natural and there also some causes of infertility as follow: 2

  3. Causes of Infertility • Blocked oviducts -- there may prevent ova and sperm meeting, in which case an operation may be undertaken to unblock the tubes or in vitro fertilization can be attempt. • An irregular menstrual cycle -- this may make the chance of fertilization remote and hormone treatment necessary to regularize the cycle. 3

  4. Incorrect frequency and/or timing of intercourse may take conception unlikely and couples may need to be counseled on the most appropriate time (the middle of the menstrual cycle) to have sexual intercourse in order to increase the possibility of fertilization. 4

  5. Non-production of ova -- this affects a few females making it impossible for them to contribute genetically to their offspring. Adoption or the use of a donated ovum from another female for insemination of a surrogate mother with the potential father’s sperm is another option. 5

  6. Non-production of sperm -- some men produce no sperm, or so few that there is little realistic prospect of conception. Donated semen from another male can be used to artificially inseminate the woman. 6

  7. Miscarriage Apart from infertility, there are another causes which lead to a baby cannot come to the world. This is miscarriage. There are many reasons lead to miscarriage and they are as follows: 7

  8. Causes of Miscarriage 8

  9. Contraception • Besides, contraception will also lead to the failure of pregnancy. There are many ways to contraception. For examples, vasectomy, tube ligation, oral contraception, condom, etc. In the following, we have some pictures of these contraceptives and we will give a brief description of their uses. 9

  10. Oral Contraception • There are commonly two kinds of oral contraception. The main difference is the number of pills, one with 28 pills and another with 21 pills. The methods of taking them are also different. 10

  11. What’s the difference? • For the one with 28 pills, you should take a pill once a day continuously. • For the one with 21 pills, you should take a pill once a day. After finish a whole pack, you should stop for seven days and then start taking the pills again. 11

  12. Injection Contraception • After each injection, its limitation last for twelve weeks. 12

  13. Intra-Uterine Device • The intra-uterine device (IUD) must be placed inside the uterus of woman by doctors. Generally, it is more suitable for placing it in the fifth day of the start of menstruation. For those who use IUD, they should have a body check and replace the old IUD regular. 13

  14. Male condom How to use condom? • First, you should jostle the air inside the bag. • Then, trap the penis with the condom. • After that, slowly release the rolled-up part until it cover the whole penis 14

  15. Pay attention in using the condom • One thing you should be pay attention is that when holding the condom, you should avoid piercing the condom. Thus, you should avoid holding the condom with sharp nail. You can also smear some spermicide outside the condom. 15

  16. Female condom How to use the female condom? • First, use the thumb, forefinger and middle finger to hold the closed end of the condom. • Then, use another hand to stretch open the labia and push the condom inside the end of the vagina. • After that, extend your finger inside the condom to push the condom inside the vagina and leave the open end of the condom outside the vagina. 16

  17. Diaphram • To use diaphram, woman should first smear the spermicide outside the diaphram. • Before sexual intercourse, use your hand to place the diaphram inside the vagina to cover the cervix. 17

  18. Attention in using diaphram • The diaphram should stay inside the body for at least six to eight hours after intercourse. • After removed the diaphram, wash it and put it inside a clean box to keep it for the next time. 18

  19. Foaming Tablets How to use the foaming tablets? • Wet the tablet and wait for it foam. • After it is foamed, use your hand to put the tablets inside the vagina. 19

  20. Rhythm Method • Theoretically, ovulation takes place fourteen days before menstruation. The most common methods include: body temperature recording, calendar calculation and observation of the mucus in the cervix. 20

  21. Ovulation Thermometer • In the following, we have shown you an ovulation thermometer. Since the temperature will have a bit difference when ovulation takes place, thus the ovulation thermometer is used to take a record of body temperature every day 21

  22. Permanent contraception • There is also a kind of contraception which is permanent. • Through surgery, for female, the oviducts are blocked so as to make the ova and sperm cannot combine. • For male, deferent ducts are blocked so that the sperm cannot go into the semen and out of the body. 22

  23. The effectiveness of different kinds of contraception 23

  24. 24

  25. Reference • Lennart Nilsson (1994). A child is born. London: Transword Publishers Limited • Anne Szarewski & John guillebaud (1994). Contraception A User’s Handbooks. Britain: Oxford University Press • Glenn & Susan Toole (3rd edition) (1995). Understanding Biology for Advance Level. Italy: Stanley Thornes Publishers Limited • 醫學博士謝偉權著,謝文麗譯. (1994): <<圖解妊娠與生產>> , 台北笛藤出版社。 • 伊莉莎伯·芬域克著。 (1993): 新一代媽媽寶寶護理大全, 香港 萬里機構, 得利書局出版。 25