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Food and Nutrition I State Test Review Kitchen Equipment Bread knife Serrated edge for cutting bread Colander Drains liquids; has larger holes than a strainer Cutting board Protects counter when cutting and chopping foods For proper sanitation should be plastic instead of wood

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food and nutrition i

Food and Nutrition I

State Test Review

kitchen equipment
Kitchen Equipment
  • Bread knife
    • Serrated edge for cutting bread
  • Colander
    • Drains liquids; has larger holes than a strainer
  • Cutting board
    • Protects counter when cutting and chopping foods
    • For proper sanitation should be plastic instead of wood
  • French/chef’s knife
    • Large triangular blade, wide at handle and narrow at the tip
    • Used for slicing, cutting, chopping and dicing
slide3
Glass baking dish
    • Reduce temperature in oven 25 degrees
  • Ladle
    • Small bowl at the end of a long handle
    • Used for dipping hot liquid from a pan
  • Meat thermometer
    • Measures internal temperature of meat and poultry
  • Oven thermometer
    • Measures internal temperature of ovens
  • Pancake turner
    • Used to lift and turn flat foods such as hamburgers and pancakes
  • Pastry blender
    • To cut in shortening
slide4
Paring knife
    • To cut or peel small food items
  • Refrigerator/freezer thermometer
    • Used to measure internal temperature of refrigerator/freezer
  • Rubber scrapper
    • Has a rubber end
    • Used to scrape out food from bowls, measuring cups, etc.
  • Slotted spoon
    • Spoon with holes
    • Used to take solids out of liquids
  • Straight edge/metal spatula
    • Long flat spatula with a straight edge
    • Used for leveling and frosting cakes
slide5
Strainer
    • Wire mesh that separates liquid from food
    • Usually has small sine holes
  • Tongs
    • Used to grip and lift hot foods
  • Vegetable peeler
    • A tool used to take off the outer surface of vegetables and fruit
  • Wire whisk/whip
    • Used for blending, mixing, stirring, beating and whipping milk and eggs
microwave
Microwave
  • Microwaves are attracted to what type of food?
    • Fat
    • Sugar
    • Water molecules
  • Microwave safe containers include:
    • Plastic, paper, glass
  • Define Standing Time:
    • Foods continue to cook when removed from the microwave
  • What increases cooking and standing time?
    • Quantity and volume
slide7
For best results when cooking in a microwave remember too:

A. Stir and rotate food for even cooking

B. Covering foods holds moisture in

C. Cook in round/ring container for even cooking

To prevent burns from microwaves

A. Lift cover or plastic away from you

B. Piercing items can prevent exploding or

splattering

C. Cover with plastic wrap, paper towels, wax paper or

lid.

safety guidelines and safe work habits
Safety Guidelines and Safe Work Habits
  • Electrical appliances:
    • Use dry hands, stand on dry floor, keep away from water
  • Knives:
    • Dull knives are more dangerous and less efficient
  • Grease Fires:
    • Cover with lid, baking soda or salt,
    • Avoid flour or sugar
  • Poisonings and contamination:
    • Do not mix chlorine with ammonia products
    • Store cleaning supplies away from foods
  • Burns:
    • Lift lids on hot foods away from you
    • Saucepan handles point away from the front of the range
  • Falls:
    • Clean spills immediately to avoid falls
    • Use stepping stool to reach items in high cupboards
first aid
First Aid
  • Cuts and Burns

1. Severely bleeding – apply direct pressure

2. first-degree burn – place under cold,

running water

  • Electrical Shock

1. Use dry hands to disconnect power source

2. disconnect power source before approaching

injured person

sanitation standards
Sanitation Standards
  • Hand Washing:
    • Wash with soap & water 20 seconds minimum
    • Wash after sneezing, using the restroom, coughing or touching the face, and touching raw meat
    • Wear gloves when cut on hand or open sores are present
  • Work Surfaces:
    • Disinfect work surfaces with disinfectant
  • Clothing
    • Change dirty aprons often
  • Tasting Foods
    • Use clean spoon and use only once
  • Pests and insects
    • Avid crumbs or spills -keep staples in airtight container
    • Dispose of garbage properly
  • Dish Washing Order
    • Rinse and scrape first - glassware before silverware
    • Wash pots and pans last
food borne illness
Food-Borne Illness:

Result from eating contaminated foods containing poisonous toxins

  • General conditions for bacteria growth:
    • Warmth, contaminated foods containing poisonous toxins.
  • Food with food-borne illness:
    • Not always off-odor or off-flavor
    • Often look and smell normal
types
Types
  • Botulism:
    • Improperly canned foods
    • High in low-acid foods
  • E-coli:
    • Bacteria from air from soil, fecal matter, undercooked ground beef
  • Hepatitis:
    • Toxin from fecal bacteria transferred by human contact through improper hand washing
  • Salmonella:
    • Found in fresh poultry and raw eggs
  • Staphylococci:
    • Spread through human mucus contact through food sources
prevention
Prevention
  • Preparation:
    • Proper hand washing
    • Washing cutting boards with soap and hot water
  • Storage
    • Store raw meat, poultry in refrigerator so they do not drip or touch other foods
    • Never place cooked food on plates that held raw food
temperature zones
Temperature Zones
  • Danger zone:
    • Between 40-140 degrees F.
    • Keep hot foods hot, and cold foods cold
    • Foods should not be left at danger zone for more than 2 hours
  • Cooking:
    • Cook to proper temperatures
      • Ground meat to 160 degrees
      • Egg yolks and whites cooked until firm
  • Cooling foods:
    • Place food in shallow dishes and refrigerate immediately
  • Reheating foods:
    • Bring sauces, soups, to a boil when reheating; heat other leftovers to 165 degrees
  • Thawing Foods:
    • Refrigerator is the safest way to thaw food
abbreviations
Tablespoon = T, Tbs, or

Tbsp.

Teaspoon = t. or tsp

Gallons = gal.

Pound = lb. or #

Cup = c.

Quart = qt.

Ounce = oz.

Pint = pt.

Temperature = temp.

Minute = min.

Calorie = cal.

Hour = hr.

ABBREVIATIONS
equivalents
3t = 1 T

4T = ¼ cup

2 c = 1 pt

4 qt = 1 gal

16 c = 1 gal

1/8 c = 2 T

4 c = 1 qt

2 pt = 1 qt

1/3 c = 5 1/3 T

½ c = 8 T

1 c = 16 T

¾ c = 12 T

60 min = 1 hr

8 fl oz = 1 c

½ c = 1 cube butter

EQUIVALENTS
doubling and cutting recipes
DOUBLING AND CUTTING RECIPES
  • Cooking temperature remains the same
  • The amount of ingredients changes
  • Length of cooking time changes
  • Size of pan will be affected
double and halving
Half 1 qt = 2 cups

Half 2/3 c = 1/3 cup

Half 1 1/3 c = 2/3 cup

Half 1 T = 1 ½ tsp

Double ¼ c = ½ cup

Double ¾c = 1 ½ cups

Double 2 T = ¼ cup

Double 1/3 c = 2/3 cup

Double and Halving
measuring techniques
MEASURING TECHNIQUES
  • Measuring flour (or a dry ingredient):
    • Spoon flour into cup and level off
  • Measuring brown sugar:
    • Pack sugar firmly into cup
  • Measuring liquids:
    • Use clear cup, on flat surface, at eye level
  • Measure ¾ cup:
    • ½ cup + ¼ cup - 1/4c + 1/4c + 1/4c
  • Measure 1/8 cup:
    • Use 2 T
  • Avoid _tapping__ or _Packing_ flour into measuring cup
  • Give an example of using the most efficient tool.
    • Using ¼ cup rather than 4 Tbs
food preparation terms
Food Preparation Terms:

Chop: Cut into small pieces

Cream: to work sugar and fat together until the mixture to soft and fluffy

Cut in: to cut fat into flour with a pastry blender or two knives

Dice: to cut into very small cubes

Flour: to sprinkle or coat with a powdered substance, often with crumbs or seasonings

Fold in: to mix ingredients by gently turning one part over another

Grate: to finely divide food in various sizes by rubbing in on surface with sharp projections

slide21
Knead: to work dough to further mix the ingredients and develop the gluten

Mince: to cut or chop food as finely as possible

Peel: to remove or strip off the skin or rind of some fruits and vegetables

Sauté: to brown or cook foods with a small amount of fat using low to medium heat

Simmer: to cook just below the boiling point

Steam: to cook by the vapor produced when water is heated to the boiling point

Whip: to beat rapidly to introduce air bubbles into food

dietary guidelines
DIETARY GUIDELINES
  • ADEQUATE NUTRIENTS WITHIN CALORIE NEEDS – consume a variety of nutrient dense foods. Nutrient dense – a lot of nutrients compared to calories.
  • WEIGHT MANAGEMENT – Maintain a healthy weight, increase physical activity and reduce food & beverage intake.
  • PHYSICAL ACTIVITY – Teens should get 60 min. of physical activity every day.
  • FOOD GROUPS TO ENCOURAGE – fruits & vegetables (increase orange and dark green) and whole grains.
  • FATS – less than 10% saturated, less than 300 mg. Cholesterol, 25 – 35 % of calories, trans fats low.
  • CARBOHYDRATES – Choose fruits, vegetables & whole grains to increase fiber, prepare foods with less sugar and practice good oral hygiene.
  • SODIUM AND POTASSIUM – choose and prepare foods with less salt. Less than 2300 mg of sodium. Eat potassium rich fruits and vegetables.
  • FOOD SAFETY
function and implementation of food guide pyramid
Function and Implementationof Food Guide Pyramid
  • Improves general health
  • Grouped according to nutrients
  • Groups cannot replace one another
  • Calories are according to age, gender, body size, and activity level
dietary intake goals
Dietary Intake goals:
  • Carbohydrates:

55-60% total daily calorie intake

  • Fat:

25- 35% of daily calorie intake

  • Protein:

12 - 20% of total daily calorie intake

american diets
American Diets
  • Have more fat, sugar, salt, and calories than recommended
  • Are lower in fiber than recommended
  • Salt and sodium are added to processed foods, beverages, and diet drinks
  • High consumption of salt and sodium lead to high blood pressure
  • Be aware of invisible fat in foods
fruits vegetables
2 Cups

Provides complex carbohydrates

low in fat & sodium

Vitamin C & potassium

High in fiber

Serving size:

1 medium fruit

½ cup chopped

¾ c 100% juice

2 ½ C servings

Serving size:

1 cup leafy vegetables

½ c cooked or raw

¾ cup juice

Provides:

Fiber

Complex carbohydrates

Low in fat

Vitamins A, D, K

Fruits Vegetables
milk yogurt cheese
Milk, Yogurt, Cheese
  • Servings: 3 C daily
  • Youth to 24 yrs and breast feeding women need to consume 4 servings daily
  • High in complete proteins, and fortified with vitamin A and D
  • Excellent source of calcium, phosphorus, and riboflavin
  • Low fat choices include: Skim milk, nonfat yogurt, low-fat cheeses
  • Necessary for maintaining and growing healthy teeth and bones
  • Serving size:
    • 1 cup milk or yogurt - 1 ½ oz natural cheese
    • 2 oz processed cheese
meat poultry fish dry beans eggs and nuts
Meat, poultry, fish, dry beans, eggs and nuts
  • Recommended servings daily: 2-3 oz
  • Provide complete proteins, B vitamins, and minerals including iron
  • Select lean meats, fish, poultry without skin to reduce fat
  • Dry beans, split peas, refried beans, pork and beans, chili and lentils are high in fiber
  • Nuts are higher in fat protein
  • Serving size: 2-3 oz cooked lean meat (size of deck of cards,
oils discretionary calories
Oils & Discretionary Calories
  • 7 teaspoons
  • Found in Olive oil, canola oil, Mayonaise and salad dressings.
  • Discretionary Calories – The calories left over after food all other requirements have been met.
  • Whole Milk and Ice cream, other high fat dairy products and processed meats
  • Fruit in jams, jelly, pies, or things with sugar
  • Fats include – margarine, butter, mayonnaise, bacon, french fries, potato chips
nutrient carbohydrates
Nutrient -Carbohydrates
  • Primary function is to provide energy
  • Carbohydrates have 4 calories per gram
  • Whole grain: bran – fiber; endosperm – starch; germ/seed – B vitamins
  • Complex carbohydrates
    • Known as starches
    • Whole grains, cereal, dried beans, rice
  • Simple carbohydrates
    • Known a sugars
fiber
Fiber
  • 20-35 grams daily
  • Roughage
  • Attracts water to our intestines, and moves food through the intestines faster
  • Keeps bowel movements soft, reduces constipation
  • Cellulose = nondigestible fiber
  • Food high in fiber: fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, bran cereal, dry beans
  • Reduces risk of diverticulosis, colon & rectal cancer
  • To add fiber to a recipe add: bananas, berries, replace flour with part whole wheat flour
rice and grains
Rice and grains
  • Whole grain: most nutritious bread because it contains the whole grain
  • White and brown bread: contain only the endosperm
  • Brown rice: the whole grain form of rice
  • Cooking rice: covered in simmering water on low heat, triples in bulk
  • Long grain rice: a rice that will stay dry and fluffy
  • Instant rice: precooked and dehydrated, fast and doubles
pasta
Pasta
  • Pasta dishes are usually low cost entrees
  • Store in a tightly covered container at room temperatures
  • Cook pasta: uncovered in a large amount of boiling water, stirring occasionally; double in bulk
  • Pasta test for doneness – al dente: meaning firm to the tooth
quick breads
Quick Breads
  • Non-yeast, leavened flour based products
  • Quick and easy to prepare
  • Overmixing causes tough products
  • Function of ingredients:
    • Flour: main ingredients, gives structure
    • Liquid: provides moisture
    • Fat: provides tenderness, richness, and some flavor
    • Salt and sugar: taste/flavoring
  • Leavening agents: baking powder, eggs, baking soda, and steam
  • Examples of quick breads:
    • Muffins - Pancakes -Waffles
    • Biscuits -Corn bread -Popover
water most essential nutrient
Water – most essential nutrient
  • Carries vitamin C and B through the body
  • Carries waste through the body
  • Regulates body temperature
  • Body can not survive with out water
  • Dehydration = lack of water
  • Prevent dehydration: drink water and other fluids frequently – don’t wait to be thirsty
  • 8 – 8oz glasses of water are recommended daily
  • Urine should be pale yellow (lemonade)
  • Dark urine is indication of dehydration
vitamins
Vitamins
  • Essential to metabolic process
  • Vitamins A, C, and E are antioxidants
  • A = enhance hair, skin, and prevents night

blindness

  • B = essential during pregnancy
  • C = forms collagen, aids in healing,
  • D = maintain healthy bones and teeth,

sunshine vitamin

  • E = protects the membranes of white and red

blood cells

  • K = helps blood to clot
minerals
Minerals
  • Most become part of the body –bones, teeth
  • Others are used to make substances that the body needs
  • Needed in small amounts but are critical to health
  • Macro Minerals: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium
  • Electrolytes: sodium, potassium, chloride
  • Trace Minerals: iron, iodine, flouride, zinc
mineral deficiencies
Mineral deficiencies
  • Calcium = osteoporosis: bones gradually lose their minerals becoming weak and fragile
  • Iron = anemia: low red cell formation, low blood count, animal products provide excellent sources of iron select lean types/cuts
fruits
Fruits
  • Selection
    • Quality fruits: firm texture, free from decay, smooth skin, dense (heavy), free from bruises
    • Seasonal fruit = lower in cost, plentiful, better quality
    • Buy only what you will use in 1 week
    • Available in frozen, canned
  • Storage
    • Store in refrigerator
    • Fruits ripen and spoil faster at room temperature
    • Some fruits are picked ripe: apples, oranges, grapefruit
    • Others are picked green: pears, peaches, bananas, melons
    • Oxidation = exposure to air and turns brown
    • Heat, air, water will destroy vitamins in fruit
vegetables
Vegetables
  • Selection: firm texture, free from decay, crisp, smooth dense, free from bruises, good color
  • Wash vegetables to remove pesticides
  • Avoid nutrient loss
  • Stir frying is fast and leaves vegetables crisp
  • Retain nutrients – microwave, steam vegetables
  • Heat, air, water will destroy vitamin in vegetables
protein
Protein
  • Protein builds and repairs body tissue
  • Lack of protein stunts growth and slow healing
  • Energy source is 4 calories per gram
  • Complete protein
    • 22 amino acids
    • 9 essential amino acids
    • Animal sources
    • Amino acids are basic structural unit of protein
  • Incomplete protein
    • Plant sources
    • Rice & beans; peanut butter & whole wheat bread
    • Tofu is only complete plant protein
slide43
Eggs
  • Complete protein, vitamins A & D, riboflavin, and iron
  • Functions: binder = meat loaf; thickener = pudding; coating = breaded chicken; leavening agent = angel food cake; emulsifier = mayonnaise
  • Protein toughened by heat and long exposure to heat
  • Beaten egg whites – fat inhibits their formation
  • Stages of beaten egg whites
    • Foam
    • Soft peaks
    • Stiff peaks
  • To increase storage life of eggs store in original carton (good for several weeks)
slide44
Milk
  • To prevent scorching heat at low temperature and constant stirring; or heat in the microwave
  • Pasteurized milk = heat treated to remove harmful organisms
  • Homogenized milk = fat particles mechanically broken down and evenly distributed so the fat will not separate out
  • Types of milk:
  • Reduce fat in recipes
  • Procedure for white sauce: moderate temperature and stirring constantly
  • Milk should stay fresh 5-7 days after date stamped on the carton.
slide45
Fats
  • Functions:
    • Carrier for fat soluble vitamins
    • Adds flavor to foods
    • Supplies energy
  • 9 calories per gram
  • 66 grams recommended maximum for a 2,000 calorie diet
  • No more than 30% of calories should come from fat
  • High fat diets are linked to heart disease, obesity, and cardiovascular related problems
cholesterol
Cholesterol
  • Produced in liver
  • Recommended less than 300 mg; Americans consume 350-450 mg
  • HDL = good cholesterol
  • LDL = bad cholesterol
    • High levels are linked to heart disease and obesity
saturated mono unsaturated poly unsaturated
Saturated, mono-unsaturated, poly-unsaturated
  • Mono unsaturated:
    • Lowers LDL, raises HDL
    • Olive oil, olives, avocados, peanuts, canola oil
  • Poly unsaturated:
    • Lowers both LDL, and HDL levels
    • Corn, soybean, and safflower oil
  • Saturated fat: animal sources, solid at room temperatures
    • Raises LDL & HDL levels of cholesterol
    • Examples are: meat, poultry skin, whole milk, tropical oils, butter, shortening, lard