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L. Jesse Rouse Dept of Geology and Geography West Virginia University Committee: Trevor Harris, Chair Gary Lock Ken Martis Jennifer Miller Briane Turley.

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slide1

L. Jesse Rouse

Dept of Geology and Geography

West Virginia University

Committee: Trevor Harris, Chair

Gary Lock

Ken Martis

Jennifer Miller

Briane Turley

Experiential Landscape Archaeology:modeling structured landscape perspectives through geospatial technologies and Higuchi-style indices
directions and ideas
Directions and ideas
  • Space to place
  • Phenomenology
    • GIS exogenous
    • Experience
  • Higuchi (Harris, LaKose and Rouse, 2005)
  • Formalizing the structure of experience

2

landscape archaeology
Landscape Archaeology
  • Cultural Landscapes
  • Landscape studies/histories
  • Landscape Archaeology in the UK
  • Spatial Science and Positivist Archaeology
  • Post-positivist backlash
  • GIS and Landscape Archaeology
  • Phenomenology

3

tilley s experience of landscape
Tilley’s Experience of Landscape
  • Tilley (1994)
    • Phenomenology of Landscape
    • link between the individual and the landscape
  • Based on the Phenomenology of Heidegger
    • Filtered through Tuan
    • Personal, visual perspective of the landscape

4

evolution of phenomenology
Evolution of phenomenology
  • Critique of phenomenology in LA
    • Difficult to capture personal experience
    • Lack of replicability
    • Individualistic
  • Phenomenological approaches
    • Husserl - lebensweldt or “lifeworld”
    • Heiddeger - dasein or “being in the world”
    • Merleau-Ponty
  • Tilley (2004) The Materiality of Stone

5

geospatial technologies
Geospatial Technologies
  • Spatial Science
  • GIS and Archaeology
    • 1990s
    • Mapping, recording, predictive modeling
  • Geographic Information Science
    • GIS informed by theory
    • Social critique
    • Integrating new types of data and representation

6

sensual gis
Sensual GIS
  • Gillings and Goodrick (1996) looked at moving GIS beyond the flat 2D map
    • Make the experience interactive
    • Take full advantage of the senses
      • Sight, sound, touch, and smell
  • Primarily based on the representation of information
  • Visual can play an important role in modeling

7

tadahiko higuchi
Holistic landscape assessment

based on human physiology and psycho-physical approach

how people perceive and view landscapes

viewshed elements based on human physiology and landscape aesthetics

Tadahiko Higuchi

Optimum

Angle of

elevation

Optimum

Angle of

depression

8

slide9

Traditional line-of-sight viewshed analysis

0-2m

2-5m

15-150m

150-1km

>1km

20%

40%

10%

10%

20%

Time spent on viewing distances

Hull and Stewart (1995)

9

h i higuchi indices
Nine indices:

Line of sight

Depth of invisibility

Distance zones

Angle of incidence

Angle of depression

Angle of Elevation

Light

Depth and texture gradient

Temporal

Composite index

Hi - Higuchi Indices

Higuchi, 1986

10

example higuchi analysis
Example Higuchi analysis
  • Laura LaKose, 2004
    • Utilized ideas from Higuchi to consider the landscape architecture of a rural area in WV
    • Focus is on the impact of an existing power plant on the landscape
    • Modeled Higuchi indices using COTS software

11

slide12

GAP LULC

30-meter Landsat

- 26 categories

SSURGO

GIS model

vegetation

10m DEM

intervisibility
Intervisibility

Depth and

Texture

Short

Distance

Viewshed

Light

analysis

Mid-

Distance

Viewshed

Depth

of invisibility

Long

Distance

Viewshed

Angle of

depression

slide14

Composite Analysis

Reds – poor viewshed qualities

Beige – viewshed quality

Green – good to exceptional

landscape quality

converging ideas
Converging ideas
  • Phenomenological approach to landscape archaeology
  • GIS and landscape archaelogy
  • Physical and physiological perspective captured through Higuchi indices
  • Linking ideas and information in order to consider prehistoric cultural landscapes

15

dissertation goal
Dissertation Goal
  • To develop a structured experiential and phenomenological approach to prehistoric landscapes through the linkage of Higuchi and archaeological indices utilizing geospatial technologies.

16

objective 1
Objective 1
  • Review the literature on:
    • existing ideologies and methodologies used to explore landscape archaeology
    • geospatial technologies in archaeology, especially at the landscape scale
    • phenomenology in archaeology, and
    • Higuchi viewsheds.

17

objective 2
Objective 2
  • Develop the conceptual model to link phenomenology, geospatial technologies and landscape archaeology:
    • Adapt, amend, and add to Higuchi’s nine viewshed indices to create an archaeological model to support a structured experiential approach to prehistoric landscapes
    • Insert archaeological specific indices based on taskscapes, resourcescapes, and symbology, and
    • tie phenomenological research to the spatial frameworks of Geography and landscape archaeology.

18

objective 3
Objective 3
  • Develop GIS-supported Higuchi-based indices to study prehistoric landscapes by:
    • embedding existing Higuchi indices within GIS to take advantage of geospatial technologies
    • establishing archaeological indices that blends spatial assessment with interpretations of prehistoric life experience, and
    • coupling the GIS model results with personal and expert experience to interpret a given landscape that links egocentric and geocentric landscape perspectives.

19

objective 4
Objective 4
  • Implement the developed indices through a case study based on an archaeological landscape by:
    • Utilizing archaeological and physiologically derived information
    • Conducting field visit(s) to test the ‘fit’ of the model obtained through implementing the indices in a GIS, and
    • Assessing how quantitative indices differ from expert/personal experience.

20

objective 5
Objective 5
  • Evaluate the use of structured indices to support an experiential landscape archaeology to:
    • understand the role and importance of visual and experiential forms of interpretation based on insights gained from case studies,
    • determine how well the indices support a phenomenological approach to understanding past cultural landscapes,
    • determine future research avenues for structured indices in prehistoric archaeological landscape analysis.

21

methods
Methods
  • Build on cognitive, physiological and physical landscape
  • Generalize visual landscape qualities
  • GIS data analysis
  • Dynamic factors - plumes, clouds, mist, smoke
  • Link Higuchi to phenomenological approach
    • A structured landscape analysis

22

h a archaeology indices
Ha - archaeology indices
  • Resourcescapes (Trufkovic, ND)
  • Taskscapes (Ingold, 1993)
    • Sustenance
    • Shelter
    • Community
    • Travel/movement
  • Sacred space

23

h ai enhanced indices
Hai – enhanced indices
  • Blend human physiology and culture to better understand human interaction with landscape
    • Viewshed
    • Perception
    • Biological necessity
    • Cultural interaction
    • Cosmology

24

index perspectives
Index perspectives
  • Egocentric perspective (Hi)
    • Based on the experience of now
      • Takes into account memory to support the interpretation of current location
    • Personal perspective
      • Requires a personal experience of the current location only
  • Geocentric perspective (Ha)
    • Based on memory/knowledge
      • Builds beyond current location by utilizing knowledge of area beyond current view to link view with the larger landscape
    • Model perspective
      • Requires a personal experience of the location and an understanding beyond the current view
  • Hai

25

phenomenology higucghi and gis
Existing attempts have focused on the egocentric

Building a shared experience of the landscape

Structured approach

Phenomenology, Higucghi, and GIS

26

h ai proposed indices
Hai – proposed indices
  • Line of sight
  • Depth of invisibility
  • Distance zones
  • Angle of incidence, depression, and elevation
  • Light
  • Depth and texture gradient
  • Distance to water
  • Food acquisition
  • Material acquisition
  • Natural shelter

27

expected findings
Expected findings
  • Build on existing attempts to integrate Higuchi into a GIS environment
  • Adapt Higuchi indexes and build additional indexes to better capture cultural landscapes
  • Merger of phenomenological experiences of landscape with structured indices and GIS

30

timeline
Timeline
  • One year project duration
  • Dec – Feb
    • Literature review and data acquisition
  • Feb – March
    • Create detailed indices and plan field visits
  • March – July
    • Field visits and data capture
  • Jan – Nov
    • Chapters as relevant work is completed
    • Revisions and editing as necessary

31