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  1. Veterinarians at CDC Jennifer Gordon Wright, DVM, MPH, DACVPM Auburn University, 1998 jgwright@cdc.gov

  2. Presentation Today • Why veterinarians and public health? • How I came to be where I am • Opportunities for employment • Veterinarians at CDC • How can you start a career in the federal or state government?

  3. Public Health “ is what we, as a society, do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy.” Institute of Medicine, The Future of Public Health, 1988

  4. Serving the Nation in All Components of the Veterinary Oath Being admitted to the profession of veterinary medicine, I solemnly swear to use my scientific knowledge and skills for the benefit of society through the protection of animal health, the relief of animal suffering, the conservation of animal resources, the promotion of public health, and the advancement of medical knowledge.

  5. Links Between Human and Animal Health Antibiotic Resistance Foodborne Disease Emerging Diseases Bio- Agro- Terrorism Mental Health Injuries Occupational Health Environmental Health

  6. Multidrug resistant Salmonella E.coli O157 Cryptosporidiosis E.coli non-O157 Nv-CJD Brucellosis West Nile Virus West Nile E.coli O157 Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome NV-CJD Reston virus Influenza A(H5N1) Lyme Borreliosis Reston Virus Leptospirosis Lassa fever Nipah Virus Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Rift valley Fever Yellow fever Ebola Monkeypox Ross River virus Equine morbillivirus Hendra virus Emerging and Re-emerging Zoonoses, 1996–2005 Recent outbreaks Influenza / Madagascar CCHF / Afghanistan, Iran Tularemia / USA, Kosovo Yellow fever / Ivory Coast Brucellosis / Mongolia E. coli 0157 / Canada Hantavirus / US BSE-vCJD/ UK Nipah virus / Malaysia Avian Influenza / Hong Kong West Nile / USA, Canada Ebola / Gabon, Congo BSE /Canada Monkeypox / DRC/ US SARS / Global Avian Influenza H5N1

  7. Veterinarians Preventing Zoonoses in Clinical Practice • Rabies • Ascarids and Hookworms • Toxoplasmosis • Cat Scratch Fever • Salmonellosis • Scabies, ringworm • Brucellosis; Undulant fever • Psittacosis • Tick-borne diseases • Other

  8. The long and winding road… Bachelor of Science in Microbiology, Auburn University • Interest in working at CDC, but in what capacity? • DVM from Auburn University, 1998 • Planned a career in small animal practice • Turning point – a lecture in sophomore PH lecture about a human case of plague • Went into practice for a few years • Found the EIS program while searching the web for jobs • Began MPH work in 2000, worked at CDC • Entered EIS in July 2002

  9. History of CDC • 1946 - Communicable Disease Center founded in Atlanta by Dr Joseph W Mountin • 400 employees, mostly engineers and entomologists working on malaria prevention • Original focus on vectorborne and zoonoses • Growing awareness that expansion to all communicable diseases was necessary

  10. CDC in 1944 Return to top.

  11. History of CDCcontinued • 1950 – Korean War –threat of biological warfare loomed • Dr Alexander Langmuir – emphasis on epidemiology and surveillance to guard against threats to public health • Created CDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) • “Disease Detectives”

  12. Key CDC Successes • 1955: Surveillance data used to trace polio and influenza epidemics, leading to national guidelines for use of vaccines • 1962 – 1977: Global smallpox eradication • Mid 1970s – 1980s: Identified the cause of Legionnaires Disease and toxic-shock syndrome • 1981: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome first mentioned in MMWR

  13. CDC today • One of 13 components of DHHS • >8000 employees • Headquarters – Atlanta, Morgantown, Ft. Collins, Cincinnati, Hyattsville • State health departments • International reputation • Applies research and findings to improve daily lives • Respond to health emergencies • Not just infectious diseases • Chronic diseases, injuries, workplace hazards, disabilities, environmental health threats

  14. CDC in2006 “ The function of developing and protecting health must rank even above that of restoring it when it is impaired. “ Hippocrates

  15. How CDC operates • Jurisdiction over: • Cruise ships docking in US ports • Importation of people/animals with communicable disease • Otherwise, need invitation of the state or reservation to assist

  16. Veterinarians at CDCAs of December 2005

  17. Veterinarians at CDC • Epidemiologists • Laboratory animal veterinarians • Laboratory research • Health Educators

  18. Epidemiologists • EIS program • Outbreak investigations • Research and surveillance • Policy recommendations

  19. What is the EIS Program? • Epidemic Intelligence Service (aka “Disease Detectives”) • Established in 1951 • Mission: To prevent & control communicable diseases • A 2 year training program in applied epidemiology • Domestic and International Service • Respond to Requests for Epidemiologic Assistance

  20. EIScontinued • 55-75 officers, 6-9% are veterinarians • Applications are due in October for the following year’s class • Additional training or experience in public health encouraged prior to application • http://www.cdc.gov/eis/about/about.htm

  21. Copper in drinking water Copper in drinking water Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis E. coli E. coli Cyclosporiasis Cyclosporiasis Forest Fires Hanta Virus Hanta Virus Norwalk Virus Malaria Malaria TB in immigrants TB in immigrants Lead screening Lead screening Where do EIS Officers Train? Legionnaires' Disease/Norwalk virus West Nile Virus/Anthrax Bombing Hurricane Hugo Hurricanes

  22. Polio Eradication: Ghana and Nepal

  23. Cost of effectiveness of Brucella vaccine, Egypt

  24. Tularemia outbreak, Martha’s Vineyard

  25. Oral Rabies Vaccine Effectiveness

  26. Q fever outbreak, Bosnia-Herzegovina

  27. Collecting bats in the Philippines, 1998

  28. Sept 11, 2001 – New York City

  29. Anthrax letters, 2001

  30. FMD Surveillance, UK May 2001 • Serosurvey of sheep to lift quarantine in infected areas

  31. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Arizona, 2004

  32. Norwalk virus outbreaks on cruise ships, 2002

  33. Monkeypox Outbreak, 2003

  34. E. coliOutbreaks in Petting Zoos

  35. Response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita, 2005

  36. Collecting swamp water for Leptospirosis testing, Florida, 2005

  37. Laboratory Animal Veterinarians • Care for CDC research animals • Horses, non-human primates, rabbits, ferrets, etc • Instrumental during Monkeypox outbreak for arranging transport of potentially infected animals from the Midwest for testing purposes • Laboratory animal medicine residency/board certification desirable, but not 100% necessary to work in the office

  38. Laboratory research • Influenza, Salmonella, E. coli, parasitic diseases, as a few examples • Additional schooling – MS or PhD necessary to assist in most laboratories • Emerging Infectious Diseases Fellowship

  39. Health Educators • Healthy Pets, Healthy People website • Consultations to TV shows • Publicize important health messages • “House MD” – message on 3/7 episode regarding risks of eating unpastuerized cheese • Prudent use of antimicrobials in veterinary curriculum • Develop educational activities around outbreak investigation/research findings

  40. Student/Recent Graduate Opportunities • State and local health departments • Opportunities with USDA, FDA • Public Health Service co-step program* • CDC - Summer student employment • CDC – Epidemiology elective • Emerging Infectious Diseases fellowship • http://www.cdc.gov/phtrain/ *currently limited opportunities due to budget

  41. Epidemiology Elective • http://www.cdc.gov/eis/applyeis/elective.htm • September through June • 6-8 weeks • Defined project, often a chance to assist with outbreak investigations • Deadline: May 30th of your Junior year • No financial support for living expenses, etc; support for investigation related travel

  42. Emerging Infectious Diseases Fellowship • 1 year program • Field of degree must in some way be applicable to research program • US Citizens only • Application deadline is mid-February each year • Must be graduating before start fellowship

  43. Personnel Systems • Civil Service • Commissioned Corps of US Public Health Service • Military Services (Air Force, Army) • Fellows • Contractors

  44. USPHSCom Corps Veterinarians • Who are we and what do we do? • How do you get a job with the Com Corps of the Public Health Service?

  45. What are our roles?Emergency Response Force for the Nation

  46. Appointment Process Step 1: PHS Application Step 2: Identify vacancy Step 3: Accept offer Step 4: Call to active duty

  47. Summary • Exciting career opportunities at CDC exist for veterinarians • About 35-40% of CDC veterinarians are PHS officers • Training programs are important entry points • EIS class is a great entry point • Epidemiology elective – invaluable experience • Additional education (MS, MPH, PhD) a plus

  48. jgwright@cdc.gov

  49. Nina Marano, CDC Marguerite Pappaniou, U Minn Jennifer McQuiston, CDC Diane Gross, CDC Marta Guerra, CDC Steve McLaughlin, CDC Kristy Murray, U Texas - Houston Paul Arguin, CDC Joel Montgomery, CDC Kathy Perdue, NIH Linda Demma, CDC Acknowledgments