Veterinarians at CDC Jennifer Gordon Wright, DVM, MPH, DACVPM Auburn University, 1998 firstname.lastname@example.org
Presentation Today • Why veterinarians and public health? • How I came to be where I am • Opportunities for employment • Veterinarians at CDC • How can you start a career in the federal or state government?
Public Health “ is what we, as a society, do collectively to assure the conditions in which people can be healthy.” Institute of Medicine, The Future of Public Health, 1988
Serving the Nation in All Components of the Veterinary Oath Being admitted to the profession of veterinary medicine, I solemnly swear to use my scientific knowledge and skills for the benefit of society through the protection of animal health, the relief of animal suffering, the conservation of animal resources, the promotion of public health, and the advancement of medical knowledge.
Links Between Human and Animal Health Antibiotic Resistance Foodborne Disease Emerging Diseases Bio- Agro- Terrorism Mental Health Injuries Occupational Health Environmental Health
Multidrug resistant Salmonella E.coli O157 Cryptosporidiosis E.coli non-O157 Nv-CJD Brucellosis West Nile Virus West Nile E.coli O157 Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome NV-CJD Reston virus Influenza A(H5N1) Lyme Borreliosis Reston Virus Leptospirosis Lassa fever Nipah Virus Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Rift valley Fever Yellow fever Ebola Monkeypox Ross River virus Equine morbillivirus Hendra virus Emerging and Re-emerging Zoonoses, 1996–2005 Recent outbreaks Influenza / Madagascar CCHF / Afghanistan, Iran Tularemia / USA, Kosovo Yellow fever / Ivory Coast Brucellosis / Mongolia E. coli 0157 / Canada Hantavirus / US BSE-vCJD/ UK Nipah virus / Malaysia Avian Influenza / Hong Kong West Nile / USA, Canada Ebola / Gabon, Congo BSE /Canada Monkeypox / DRC/ US SARS / Global Avian Influenza H5N1
Veterinarians Preventing Zoonoses in Clinical Practice • Rabies • Ascarids and Hookworms • Toxoplasmosis • Cat Scratch Fever • Salmonellosis • Scabies, ringworm • Brucellosis; Undulant fever • Psittacosis • Tick-borne diseases • Other
The long and winding road… Bachelor of Science in Microbiology, Auburn University • Interest in working at CDC, but in what capacity? • DVM from Auburn University, 1998 • Planned a career in small animal practice • Turning point – a lecture in sophomore PH lecture about a human case of plague • Went into practice for a few years • Found the EIS program while searching the web for jobs • Began MPH work in 2000, worked at CDC • Entered EIS in July 2002
History of CDC • 1946 - Communicable Disease Center founded in Atlanta by Dr Joseph W Mountin • 400 employees, mostly engineers and entomologists working on malaria prevention • Original focus on vectorborne and zoonoses • Growing awareness that expansion to all communicable diseases was necessary
CDC in 1944 Return to top.
History of CDCcontinued • 1950 – Korean War –threat of biological warfare loomed • Dr Alexander Langmuir – emphasis on epidemiology and surveillance to guard against threats to public health • Created CDC’s Epidemic Intelligence Service (EIS) • “Disease Detectives”
Key CDC Successes • 1955: Surveillance data used to trace polio and influenza epidemics, leading to national guidelines for use of vaccines • 1962 – 1977: Global smallpox eradication • Mid 1970s – 1980s: Identified the cause of Legionnaires Disease and toxic-shock syndrome • 1981: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome first mentioned in MMWR
CDC today • One of 13 components of DHHS • >8000 employees • Headquarters – Atlanta, Morgantown, Ft. Collins, Cincinnati, Hyattsville • State health departments • International reputation • Applies research and findings to improve daily lives • Respond to health emergencies • Not just infectious diseases • Chronic diseases, injuries, workplace hazards, disabilities, environmental health threats
CDC in2006 “ The function of developing and protecting health must rank even above that of restoring it when it is impaired. “ Hippocrates
How CDC operates • Jurisdiction over: • Cruise ships docking in US ports • Importation of people/animals with communicable disease • Otherwise, need invitation of the state or reservation to assist
Veterinarians at CDC • Epidemiologists • Laboratory animal veterinarians • Laboratory research • Health Educators
Epidemiologists • EIS program • Outbreak investigations • Research and surveillance • Policy recommendations
What is the EIS Program? • Epidemic Intelligence Service (aka “Disease Detectives”) • Established in 1951 • Mission: To prevent & control communicable diseases • A 2 year training program in applied epidemiology • Domestic and International Service • Respond to Requests for Epidemiologic Assistance
EIScontinued • 55-75 officers, 6-9% are veterinarians • Applications are due in October for the following year’s class • Additional training or experience in public health encouraged prior to application • http://www.cdc.gov/eis/about/about.htm
Copper in drinking water Copper in drinking water Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis E. coli E. coli Cyclosporiasis Cyclosporiasis Forest Fires Hanta Virus Hanta Virus Norwalk Virus Malaria Malaria TB in immigrants TB in immigrants Lead screening Lead screening Where do EIS Officers Train? Legionnaires' Disease/Norwalk virus West Nile Virus/Anthrax Bombing Hurricane Hugo Hurricanes
FMD Surveillance, UK May 2001 • Serosurvey of sheep to lift quarantine in infected areas
Laboratory Animal Veterinarians • Care for CDC research animals • Horses, non-human primates, rabbits, ferrets, etc • Instrumental during Monkeypox outbreak for arranging transport of potentially infected animals from the Midwest for testing purposes • Laboratory animal medicine residency/board certification desirable, but not 100% necessary to work in the office
Laboratory research • Influenza, Salmonella, E. coli, parasitic diseases, as a few examples • Additional schooling – MS or PhD necessary to assist in most laboratories • Emerging Infectious Diseases Fellowship
Health Educators • Healthy Pets, Healthy People website • Consultations to TV shows • Publicize important health messages • “House MD” – message on 3/7 episode regarding risks of eating unpastuerized cheese • Prudent use of antimicrobials in veterinary curriculum • Develop educational activities around outbreak investigation/research findings
Student/Recent Graduate Opportunities • State and local health departments • Opportunities with USDA, FDA • Public Health Service co-step program* • CDC - Summer student employment • CDC – Epidemiology elective • Emerging Infectious Diseases fellowship • http://www.cdc.gov/phtrain/ *currently limited opportunities due to budget
Epidemiology Elective • http://www.cdc.gov/eis/applyeis/elective.htm • September through June • 6-8 weeks • Defined project, often a chance to assist with outbreak investigations • Deadline: May 30th of your Junior year • No financial support for living expenses, etc; support for investigation related travel
Emerging Infectious Diseases Fellowship • 1 year program • Field of degree must in some way be applicable to research program • US Citizens only • Application deadline is mid-February each year • Must be graduating before start fellowship
Personnel Systems • Civil Service • Commissioned Corps of US Public Health Service • Military Services (Air Force, Army) • Fellows • Contractors
USPHSCom Corps Veterinarians • Who are we and what do we do? • How do you get a job with the Com Corps of the Public Health Service?
Appointment Process Step 1: PHS Application Step 2: Identify vacancy Step 3: Accept offer Step 4: Call to active duty
Summary • Exciting career opportunities at CDC exist for veterinarians • About 35-40% of CDC veterinarians are PHS officers • Training programs are important entry points • EIS class is a great entry point • Epidemiology elective – invaluable experience • Additional education (MS, MPH, PhD) a plus
Nina Marano, CDC Marguerite Pappaniou, U Minn Jennifer McQuiston, CDC Diane Gross, CDC Marta Guerra, CDC Steve McLaughlin, CDC Kristy Murray, U Texas - Houston Paul Arguin, CDC Joel Montgomery, CDC Kathy Perdue, NIH Linda Demma, CDC Acknowledgments