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  1. Veterinarians • Significant Points • Graduation from an accredited college of veterinary medicine and a license to practice are required. • Competition for admission to veterinary school is EXTREMELY high.

  2. Veterinarians • Nature of the Work • Veterinarians play a major role in the healthcare of pets, livestock, and zoo, sporting, and laboratory animals. • Most veterinarians work in private practices. • More than one-half treat small animals predominately. • A small number work exclusively with large animals, focusing mostly on horses or cows.

  3. Veterinarians • Nature of the Work • A number of veterinarians work with physicians and scientists. • Research ways to prevent and treat human health problems • Determine the effects of drug therapies and surgical techniques. • Some veterinarians are involved in food safety. • Check animals for transmissible diseases • Advise owners on treatment

  4. Veterinarians • Working Conditions • Over one-third of veterinarian work 50 or more hours a week. • Often work outdoors in all kinds of weather • Treat animals or perform surgery under less-than-sanitary conditions. • When working with animals that are frightened or in pain, veterinarians risk being bitten, kicked, or scratched.

  5. Veterinarians • Employment • Veterinarians currently hold about 59,000 jobs in the U.S.

  6. Veterinarians • Training • There are 28 colleges that meet accreditation standards set by the Council on Education of the American Veterinary Medical Association.

  7. Veterinarians • Pre-Veterinary School • Bachelor’s degree not required for some schools. • All schools require credit hours ranging from 45 to 90 semester hours. • Preveterinary courses emphasis the sciences: • Organic, inorganic and biochemistry • Physics • General biology • Animal biology, animal nutrition, genetics, etc.

  8. Veterinarians • Training • GPA of 3.5 or better is average. • Standardized Tests vary from school to school: • Graduate Record Examination (GRE) • Veterinary College Admission Test (VCAT) (no longer offered) • Medical College Admission Test (MCAT).

  9. Veterinarians • Training • Veterinary and animal experience is highly desirable. • Formal experience, such as work with veterinarians or scientists in clinics, agribusiness, research, or in some area of health science, is particularly advantageous.. • Number of applicants is currently rising. • About 1 in 4 applicants are currently accepted.

  10. Veterinarians • Training • First 2 Years • Basic sciences. • Second 2 Years • Clinical procedures. • Diagnosing and treating animal diseases and performing surgery. • Laboratory work in anatomy, biochemistry, medicine, and other scientific subjects. • Veterinary graduates who plan to work with specific types of animals or specialize in a clinical area complete a 1-year internship.

  11. Veterinarians • Earnings • Median annual earnings of veterinarians is $68,000. • Average starting salaries by type of practice: • Small animal, predominant - $42,918 • Large animal, predominant - $41,439 • Mixed animal - $40,358 • Equine - $28,526 • Federal Government - $35,808.

  12. Veterinarians • Additional Information • American Veterinary Medical Association http://www.avma.org • Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges http://www.aavmc.org

  13. Pharmacists • Significant Points • Pharmacists are becoming more involved in drug therapy decision making and patient counseling. • Very good employment opportunities are expected. • Earnings are very high, but some pharmacists work long hours, nights, weekends, and holidays.

  14. Pharmacists • Nature of the Work • Dispense prescribed drugs. • Provide information to patients about medications and their use. • They advise physicians and other health practitioners on the selection, dosages, interactions, and side effects of medications.

  15. Pharmacists • Working Conditions • Many pharmacists spend most of their workday on their feet. • About 1 out of 7 pharmacists work part time. • Most full-time salaried pharmacists worked about 40 hours a week.

  16. Pharmacists • Employment • Pharmacists currently hold about 217,000 jobs in the U.S. • About 6 out of 10 work in community pharmacies. • About 21 percent of salaried pharmacists work in hospitals, clinics, mail-order pharmacies, pharmaceutical wholesalers, home healthcare agencies, or the Federal Government.

  17. Pharmacists • Training • 84 colleges of pharmacy are accredited to confer degrees by the American Council on Pharmaceutical Education. • Pharmacy programs grant the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) • The Pharm.D. is a 4-year program that requires at least 2 years of college study prior to admittance. • This Pharm.D. has replaced the Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree, which will cease to be awarded after 2005.

  18. Pharmacists • Prerequisites • Colleges of pharmacy require at least 2 years of college-level prepharmacy education. • Mathematics • Chemistry • Biology, • Physics • Courses in the humanities and social sciences. • Some colleges require the applicant to take the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) others require the GRE.

  19. Pharmacists • Training • Pharmacy school classes include • Pharmaceutics and pharmaceutical chemistry • Physical and chemical properties of drugs and dosage forms • Pharmacology • effects of drugs on the body • Pharmacy administration.

  20. Pharmacists • Job Outlook • Pharmacists in chain drug stores may be promoted to: • Pharmacy supervisor or manager at the store level • Manager at the district or regional level • Executive position within the chain's headquarters. • Hospital pharmacists may advance to: • supervisory or administrative positions. • Pharmacists in the pharmaceutical industry may advance in: • marketing, sales, research, quality control, production, packaging, or other areas.

  21. Pharmacists • Job Outlook • Very, very good employment opportunities are expected for pharmacists. • The growing numbers of middle-aged and elderly people • Use more prescription drugs than do younger people.

  22. Pharmacists • Earnings • Median annual earnings of pharmacists is $70,950. • Median annual earnings in the industries employing the largest numbers of pharmacists: • Department stores - $73,730 • Grocery stores - $72,440 • Drug stores and proprietary stores - $72,110 • Hospitals - $68,760

  23. Pharmacists • Additional Information • American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy http://www.aacp.org • National Association of Boards of Pharmacy http://www.nabp.net • National Association of Chain Drug Stores http://www.nacds.org

  24. Podiatric Medicine • The Foot • Complex structure designed for balance and mobility • Highly significant interaction with rest of the body • May be first area to reveal signs of systemic medical conditions

  25. Podiatric Medicine • Doctor of Podiatric Medicine • Specializes in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of foot disorders, diseases, and injuries • Works closely with other health professionals to treat and control disease

  26. Podiatric Medicine • Doctor of Podiatric Medicine • Makes independent decisions • Performs surgery • Prescribes medications • Utilizes radiographic and laboratory tests for diagnostic purposes • Orders physical therapy

  27. Podiatric Medicine • Benefits of a Podiatric Medical Career • Professional Satisfaction • Alleviating human suffering • Flexible practice hours • Balanced lifestyle

  28. Podiatric Medicine • Need for Podiatric Physicians • Baby Boomers • More miles on their feet • More active lifestyles means more injury-prone • Largest segment of population • Diabetes • Reaching epidemic proportions

  29. Podiatric Medicine • Podiatric Subspecialties • Diabetic foot • Geriatrics • Pediatrics (Podopediatrics) • Biomechanics/Orthopedics • Sports Medicine

  30. Podiatric Medicine 11th Highest Paid Profession in U.S. Source: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics 2000 Average Net Income $134,557 • 0 - 2 years $ 63,088 • 3 - 5 years $104,909 • 6 - 9 years $126,717 • 10 - 14 years $143,141 • 15 - 24 years $158,509 • 25+ years $125,000 • Source: APMA 2002

  31. Podiatric Medicine • First Two Years Basic Sciences • Anatomy • Biochemistry • Physiology • Microbiology • Pathology • Histology

  32. Podiatric Medicine • Last Two Years Clinical Training • 24 months • Hospitals • Ambulatory Clinics • Long-Term Care Facilities • Community Practices

  33. Podiatric Medicine • Class of 2007 Averages • Overall GPA – 3.3 • Science GPA – 3.1 • MCAT – 20

  34. Pre-Requisites • Biology – 8 Hours* • Chemistry – 8 Hours* • Organic Chemistry – 8 Hours* • Physics – 8 Hours* • English – 6 Hours • *Lab Required

  35. Podiatric Medicine • Pre-Requisites • 90 semester hours • Bachelor’s degree recommended • MCAT preferred • Pre-professional advisory committee evaluation • Interview required

  36. Podiatric Medicine • Online application available through AACPM • Apply to all 6 member schools with same application • Application cycle begins in September for class that starts the following August

  37. Podiatric Medicine • Additional Information • American Podiatric Medical Association http://www.apma.org • American Association of Colleges of Podiatric Medicine http://www.aacpm.org

  38. Chiropractors • Significant Points • Employment of chiropractors is expected to increase faster than average. • Chiropractic care has become more accepted as a result of recent research and changing attitudes. • Earnings are relatively low in the beginning, but increase as the practice grows.

  39. Chiropractors • Nature of the Work • Chiropractors diagnose and treat patients whose health problems are associated with the body's muscular, nervous, and skeletal systems, especially the spine. • Chiropractors believe interference with these systems impairs normal functions and lowers resistance to disease. • The chiropractic approach to healthcare is holistic, stressing the patient's overall health and wellness.

  40. Chiropractors • Nature of the Work • Some chiropractors use water, light, massage, ultrasound, electric, and heat therapy. • Chiropractors do not prescribe drugs or perform surgery. • Many chiropractors are solo or group practitioners who also have the administrative responsibilities of running a practice. • The average workweek is about 40 hours. • Chiropractors, like other health practitioners, are sometimes on their feet for long periods.

  41. Chiropractors • Employment • Chiropractors currently hold about 50,000 jobs in the U.S. • Most chiropractors are in solo practice, although some are in group practice or work for other chiropractors.

  42. Chiropractors • Training • Most states require at least 2 years of undergraduate education • An increasing number of states require a 4-year bachelor's degree. • All states require completion of a 4-year chiropractic college course at an accredited program leading to the Doctor of Chiropractic degree.

  43. Chiropractors • Training • There are 16 chiropractic programs in the United States accredited by the Council on Chiropractic Education. • All required applicants must have at least 90 semester hours: • English • Social sciences and/or humanities • Organic and inorganic chemistry • Biology • Physics • Psychology.

  44. Chiropractors • Training • First 2 years of Chiropractic School • Classroom and laboratory work in basic sciences. • Last 2 years of Chiropractic School • Courses in manipulation and spinal adjustments • Clinical experience in physical and laboratory diagnosis, neurology, orthopedics, geriatrics, physiotherapy, and nutrition.

  45. Chiropractors • Job Outlook • Job prospects are expected to be good for persons who enter the practice of chiropractic with faster than average growth. • Chiropractic care is appealing to many health-conscious Americans due to its holistic approach. • Demand for chiropractic treatment is also related to the ability of patients to pay, either directly or through health insurance.

  46. Chiropractors • Earnings • Median annual earnings of salaried chiropractors is $67,030. • Self-employed chiropractors usually earn more than salaried chiropractors. • The average income for all chiropractors, including the self-employed, was about $81,500 after expenses. • Self-employed chiropractors must provide for their own health insurance and retirement.

  47. Chiropractors • Areas of Expansion • Oriental Medicine • Naturopathy

  48. Chiropractors • Additional Information • American Chiropractic Association http://www.amerchiro.org • International Chiropractors Association http://www.chiropractic.org • World Chiropractic Alliance http://www.worldchiropracticalliance.org D.D. Palmer Founder of Chiropractics