VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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VDT OCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICS

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  1. VDTOCCUPATIONALERGONOMICS

  2. VDTOCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICSObjectives • Identify and Evaluate the Ergonomic Risk Factors Associated With VDT Environments • Develop Effective Engineering and Administrative Controls to Minimize Exposures Associated With VDT Environments

  3. CURRENT VDT ISSUES • Visual Discomfort • Electromagnetic Frequency ( EMF ) Exposure • Fatigue / Stress • Musculoskeletal Disorders

  4. VISUAL DISCOMFORTComplaints • Eye Strain - Largest Single Complaint • Burning / Itching Eyes • Headaches • Cataracts

  5. VISUAL DISCOMFORTCauses • Eye Muscle Strain / Fatigue • Dry Eyes • Uncorrected Vision Problems • Vision Correcting Eyewear - Focusing Difficulties • Possible Indoor Air Quality ( IAQ ) Relationship

  6. VISUAL DISCOMFORTCurrent Consensus • No Evidence That VDT Work Leads to Visual Damage • No Proven Correlation Between VDT Usageand Cataracts • Eye Muscle Strain / Fatigue • Lighting / Glare • Monitor Height & Distance to Eyes • Visual Concentration on Monitor • Dry Eyes • VDT Environment Less Humid • Eye Blink Rate: 3. 6 / Min VDT vs. 18. 4 / Min Normal • Regular Vision Exams Recommended

  7. VISUAL DISCOMFORTControl Measures • Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness • Lighting / Glare • VDT: 50 fc / 500 Lux Optimum Light Level • Office: 100 fc / 1,000 Lux Optimum Light Level • Don’t Place VDT Directly Under Bright Overhead Lights • Provide Indirect Lighting and Supplement With Task Lighting • Place VDT Parallel to Windows • Low Reflective Walls / Work Surfaces • Anti-Glare Screens: Last Resort Only

  8. VISUAL DISCOMFORTControl Measures • Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness • Ensure Monitor Display Quality • No Apparent Flicker (Older Monitors) • Adjustable Brightness and Contrast • High Resolution and Polarity • Adjust Monitor Height and Distance • Top Character Line on Screen 15 - 20 DegreesBelow Horizontal Eye Level & Monitor Angled Appropriately Upward • Eye to Screen Distance 20”- 40” ( Operator Preference Studies 25. 5”- 31” )

  9. VISUAL DISCOMFORTControl Measures • Eye: Strain / Fatigue / Dryness • Eye Focusing / Muscle Defatigue Exercises • 1 Min. Rest / Exercise Break ( Focus / Refocus ) After 15 Min. Continuous VDT Work • Remember to Blink Eyes Frequently • > 18 Blinks / Min. Minimum to Refresh Eyes • Contact Lens Wearers Should SupplementOwn Tears Via Eye / Rewetting Drops

  10. VISUAL DISCOMFORTControl Measures • Vision / Eyewear • Regular Eye Exams • New Hire / Transfer • Annual • VDT Specific Corrective Lenses • Fixed Focal Length • No Bi / Tri-Focals • Inform Optometrist / Ophthalmologist of VDT Work and Eye / Screen Distance • Some VDT Users May Need a Correction Diff.From One Needed For Reading / Driving

  11. QUESTIONS ?

  12. ELECTROMAGNETICFREQUENCY (EMF) EXPOSUREComplaints • Reproductive Disorders • Birth Defects • Stillbirths • Spontaneous Abortions • Cancer • Leukemia • Lymphomas • Central Nervous System • Cataracts • Clusters of Reported Problems

  13. EMF EXPOSUREConcerns • EMF Radiation ? • Ionizing • X-Ray • Non-Ionizing • Infrared • Microwave • Radiowave • VLF • ELF • Or Are Other Factors the Real Issue ?

  14. EMF EXPOSURECurrent Consensus • Recent Studies Conclude: Emissions of All Types of EMFs Are Well Below Accepted Occupational and Environmental Health and Safety Limits • No Direct Causal Link Established BetweenVDT Use and Reproductive Disorders, Canceror Cataract Formation • Other Factors ( Smoking, Alcohol, Drugs, Age,Socioeconomic Status, etc. ) Have a Greater Known Effect • Work Stress May be a Factor • More Research Needed / Ongoing to Determine Correlational / Causal Links

  15. EMF EXPOSUREControl Measures • Monitor / CPU Position • Front: Min. 12” Away = < 1 milligauss (mG) • Rear: Min. 24” Away = < 1 milligauss (mG) • Essentially “ 0 ” Exposure • Minimize Exposure to Known Reproductive and Carcinogenic Risk Factors • Smoking, Alcohol & Drugs • Workstation and Job Task Design / Redesignto Minimize Work Stress and Maximize Comfort Level

  16. QUESTIONS ?

  17. Fatigue / StressComplaints • Generalized Aches and Pains • Constant Fatigue • Sleeping / Eating Disorders • Increased Reliance Upon Coping Mechanisms • Smoking, Alcohol & Drugs • Ulcers • High Blood Pressure • Coronary Heart / Artery Disease

  18. Fatigue / StressCauses • Anxiety About Job Security • Anxiety About Ability to Operate Equipment • Computer Phobia • Job Ambiguities • Perceived Lack of Control Over Job • Concerns About Productivity • Shiftwork / OT / Repetitive Work • Co-worker / Supervisor / Personal Issues • Workstation Design / Layout

  19. Fatigue / StressCurrent Consensus • Lack of Job Satisfaction is Felt by Manyto be the Greatest Stressor • Stress is Related to Overall Job Contentand Not Just VDT Use • Physical Stressors Associated With Workstation Design / Layout Compound Effects of Mental Stressors • Economic Climate Can Significantly Impact Job Fatigue / Stress Levels

  20. Fatigue / StressControl Measures • Design / Redesign Jobs to IncreaseEmployee Control and Involvement • Keep Employees Informed About Job Status, Anticipated Changes andProgress in Achieving Goals • Provide Ergonomically Well-DesignedWorkstations • Train Employees in Proper Adjustment of Workstation Features • Promote On / Off Job Wellness Programs

  21. QUESTIONS ?

  22. Musculoskeletal DisordersComplaints • # 1 - Neck / Shoulder Pain • # 2 - Low Back Pain • # 3 - CTS / Wrist Pain

  23. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSCauses • Workstation Design / Adjustment • Postural Positioning • Dynamic Movement • Static Loading • Chair, Desk, Keyboard, Monitor, DocumentHolder, Telephone, etc. • Task Design • Concentrated Effort / Repetition • Physical, Mental & Visual • Physical Environment • Lighting / Noise / Temperature

  24. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSCurrent Consensus • Problems More Closely Related to the TaskThan to the Equipment • Continuous VDT Work Defined as • > 2,000 Reps / Hr • < 30 Sec / Cycle • > 3.5 Hrs / Day Continuous ( > 50 % of Workshift ) • Symptom Severity for Upper Extremity and Low Back Injuries / Discomfort Closely Related to Typing Speed and Length of Time Typing

  25. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSCurrent Consensus • Prolonged Excessive Postural Deviations Dueto Poor Workstation Design / AdjustmentSignificantly Contribute to Injury / Discomfort • Appropriate Task and Workstation Design / Adjustment Can Alleviate Majority of Injuries / Discomfort

  26. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures • Chair - Maximum Adjustability • Height - 5 Caster Base • Seat Pan - Waterfall Edge • Backrest - Lumbar Support • Armrests - Optional but Preferred • Footrest - Adjustable Height / Tilt • Relieves Body Weight Pressure on Spine • Improves Foot Position Relativeto Chair Height

  27. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures • Monitor • Adjustability For Height and Distance • Top Character Line 15 - 20 Degrees Below HorizontalEye Level & Monitor Angled Appropriately Upward • Eye to Screen Distance 20” - 40” ( Operator Preference Studies 25. 5”- 31” ) • Articulating Monitor Stand • Keyboard / Mouse • Detached For Ease of Movement • Adjustability For Height and Distance • Articulating Tray • Wrist Support and Mouse Pad • Detached Numeric Keypad

  28. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures • Desk / Workstation • Adjustable Desktop Height • Sufficient Under-Desk Legroom / Clearance • Good Housekeeping • Office Equipment • Document Holder at Monitor Height • Primarily View Monitor: Monitor in Direct View • Primarily View Document: Document in Direct View • Calculator, Telephone, etc. • Within Individual Comfortable Reach • Telephone Handset - Shoulder Rest or Headset

  29. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures • Posture • Head / Neck: Vertical and Forward Facing • Shoulders: Comfortable / Neutral Posture • Upper / Lower Arms: 90 Degree Angle • Wrists: Horizontal • Back: Upright / Lumbar Support / Contact Backrest at All Times • Upper / Lower Legs: 90 Degree Angle • Feet: Supported by Footrest / Reposition Periodically

  30. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures • Posture • Office Equipment Within IndividualComfortable Reach • Monitor, Keyboard and Chair Adjustments Are Interrelated • Training: Proper Posture / Adjustment of Workstation Features • New Hire / Transfer / Periodic Refresher • Supervisor Enforcement

  31. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures • Task Design • Provide Ergonomically Well-DesignedWorkstations • Design / Redesign Jobs to IncreaseEmployee Control and Involvement • 1 Min. Rest / Exercise Break (Stretching / Eyes - Focus / Refocus)After 15 Min. Continuous VDT Work • 15 Min. Rest Break (10 Min. Minimum)after 2 Hrs. Continuous VDT Work (NIOSH)

  32. MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERSControl Measures • Environment • Humidity: 50 - 70 % • Room Temperature: 70 - 75 Degrees ( F ) • Lighting: VDT - 50 fc / 500 Lux Optimum Office - 100 fc / 1,000 Lux Optimum

  33. QUESTIONS ?

  34. VDTOCCUPATIONAL ERGONOMICSSummaryEvaluation / Control Measures • Total Job Environment • Workstation Design & Adjustment • Physical Environment • Task Design • Training • Emphasize Good Ergonomics • Design / Redesign / Adjustment • Promote On / Off Job Wellness

  35. THANKS FOR LISTENING TIME TO LOGOFF !