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The Pulmonary System. Chapter 4 Part I: Functional Anatomy. Objectives. Discuss the basic pulmonary structures and their functions Discuss the processes of ventilation and respiration Discuss the regulation of breathing and implications for injury or illness. The Pulmonary System.

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the pulmonary system

The Pulmonary System

Chapter 4

Part I: Functional Anatomy

objectives
Objectives
  • Discuss the basic pulmonary structures and their functions
  • Discuss the processes of ventilation and respiration
  • Discuss the regulation of breathing and implications for injury or illness
anatomical structures

The Pulmonary System

Anatomical Structures
  • Nasal passage
  • Oral cavity
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Bronchioles
  • Alveoli
  • Capillaries
functions

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation
  • Mechanics of moving air in and out of the lungs
  • Respiration
  • Exchanges O2 and CO2
functions5

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation
  • Requires active muscle contraction
  • Occurs passively
functions6

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation
  • Inhalation or Inspiration
    • Requires active muscle contraction
  • Diaphragm
  • External intercostals
  • Accessory muscles
    • Abdominals
    • Sternocleidomastoids
    • Scalenes
    • Trapezius
functions7

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation
  • Exhalation or Expiration
    • Occurs passively
functions8

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation (Inspiration)
  • Air enters through nasal passage
    • Warmed
    • Filtered
      • Mucus
      • Cilia
functions9

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation (Inspiration)
  • Air passes through pharynx

larynx

trachea

functions10

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation (Inspiration)
  • Trachea branches to form R and Lbronchi
functions11

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation (Inspiration)
  • Bronchi branch intobronchioles
functions12

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation (Inspiration)
  • Bronchioles terminate into alveoli
functions13

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Respiration
  • Alveoli surrounded by network of thin walled capillaries
functions14

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Respiration
  • Gas exchange occurs across the thin walls of capillaries and alveoli
functions15

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Respiration
  • Gas exchange
    • O2
    • CO2
functions16

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation (Expiration)
  • Air moves back thru pulmonarysystem to be exhaled
functions17

The Pulmonary System

Functions
  • Ventilation (Expiration)
  • Air moves back through pulmonarysystem to be exhaled
regulation of breathing
Regulation of Breathing
  • Central nervous system
    • Brain
      • Medulla is sensitive to CO2 levels in the blood
    • Inspiratory muscles controlled by phrenic nerve (C3-C5 nerve roots) and cranial nerve XI (sternocleidomastoid)

Implications?