Teaching with Sound Nena Bloom- Collaborative Digitization Program at the CAL ConferenceNovember 10, 2006
Overview • Students as historians • Finding sound • Teaching with sound • Community/local history • National/world History • Scaffolds • Teaching with Sound Project
What are Primary Sources? • Write one example of a primary source on the sticky note provided. • Write one example of a secondary source on the sticky note provided. • Post your notes on the appropriate chart paper.
What are Primary Sources? • Primary sources are… • Secondary sources are…
Why teach with primary sources? • Students think like historians. • They offer different points of view. • Encourages critical thinking skills. • Making connections to the past to understand the present.
Why teach with primary sources? • Students think like historians. • They offer different points of view. • Encourages critical thinking skills. • Making connections to the past to understand the present. • Students become historians. • Using primary sources as historical evidence
Why teach with primary sources? • Students think like historians. • They offer different points of view. • Encourages critical thinking skills. • Making connections to the past to understand the present. • Students become historians. • Using primary sources as historical evidence • Make history come alive!
Colorado Model Content Standards History Standard 2: • 2.1: Students know how to formulate questions and hypotheses regarding what happened in the past and to obtain and analyze historical data to answer questions and test hypotheses. • Gathering historical data from multiple sources
Colorado Model Content Standards History Standard 2 cont.: • 2.2: Students know how to interpret and evaluate primary and secondary sources of historical information.
Colorado Standards for Information Literacy • Standard 1...accesses information efficiently and effectively • Standard 2...evaluates information critically and competently. • Standard 3...uses information accurately and creatively.
Types of Sound • Speeches- Ex. American Leaders Speak: Recordings from WWI and the 1920 election. (Library of Congress American Memory)
Types of Sound • Music and Songs-Ex. Band Music from the Civil War Era(Library of Congress American Memory)Ex. Spanish New Mexican folk music -- songs in Spanish (Colorado College)Bala-Sinem Choir- American Indian Songs and Chants (Fort Lewis College)
Types of Sound • Interviews –Ex. After the Day of Infamy: "Man-on-the-Street" Interviews Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor(Library of Congress American Memory)September 11, 2001: Documentary Project(Library of Congress American Memory)
Types of Sound • Oral Histories • Living memories of all kinds of people, many otherwise hidden from history. • Stories and histories kept alive by spoken word. • Actively gathered through interviews • Audio and transcripts
Listen to the following story… From Voices of the Colorado Plateau: Paul Begay, “The Snow Was this High” http://archive.li.suu.edu/voices/
American Alpine Club Library Aspen Historical Society Belleville Public Library Bessemer Historical Society Colorado College Special Collections Colorado Springs Pioneer Museum Colorado State University Cortez Public Library Denver Public Library Western History/Genealogy Department Douglas County Library Fort Lewis College Durango CO Loveland Museum/Gallery Mancos Public Library Mesa Historical Society Montana Historical Society Museum of Western Colorado Naropa University Nebraska State Historical Society New Mexico State University Northern Arizona University Pikes Peak Library District University of Colorado-Boulder University of Colorado-Denver (Auraria) University of Denver University of Montana University of Nevada University of Northern Colorado University of Texas El Paso University of WY American Heritage Center Utah State University Library Westminster Historical Society Institutions with Sound Projects
Highlights • Craft of writing, poetics, and post-modern American literature. • Regional Hispanic experiences. • History of the Pikes Peak region. • Oral histories of Utes- Granddaughter of Chief Ouray and Chipeta. • Dams, water, environmental issues. • Railroads
Exhibits • Tentative Themes: • The West Out Loud • Introduction: How to Listen and Use Sound to Understand the West • Communities and Conflict • Myth-Making & Storytelling Shaping the Environment
Why teach with sound? • Critically listen. • Learning content through stories. • Breathe life into history/the past. • Evidence for historical inquiry.
Oral histories/sound supports literacy • Development of visual images. • Activating prior knowledge about a topic. • Experience with a variety of materials
Models for using sound • Community/local history • National/World History: Japanese American Experiences during WWII • Scaffolds for using sound
Westminster, CO: The Quiet Years-by Jan Morrow • Oral histories from Westminster Historical Society • Students use oral histories as evidence of change in community over time. • Muddy streets and gravel streets • Horse and buggy travel • Volunteer fire department created • Toll road and overpass created
President Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan By Popular Demand: Portraits of the Presidents and First Ladies Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division [LC-USZ62-110212]
Words and Deeds in American History Library of Congress, Manuscript Division, LC-MSS-78663-1
Posting of Exclusion Order at First and Front Streets in San Francisco, CaliforniaNational Archives and Records Administration War Relocation Authority, Record Group 210ARC Identifier: 536017 120,000 Japanese Americans removed from homes on the West Coast and incarcerated in ten "internment" camps for duration of war.
War Relocation Centers in the United States. National Park Service
What do you hear? What do you think? What do you want to find out? Adapted from http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/doc_analysis/graphic_organizer.pdf
Analyzing accuracy • All memories are a mixture of fact and opinion. • Consider the reliability of the narrator. • The relationship to the interviewer. • What kind of questions are being asked. • All primary sources have bias.
Scaffolds for using oral histories • Graphic Organizers- KWL • Word Splash
KWL Chart Know Want to Know Learned
KWL Chart Know Want to Know Learned- What do I still want to find out (and how can I find this out?)
Word Splash to be used with George William Vogel oral history aluminum vigilante group buffalo Dodd's Fur Company Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks orphan dried liver for bread wild mustang
Teaching with Sound Lessons • Standards-based • Using local institution collections • On CDP Website • Jump Drive at completion
Contact Information • Nena Bloom: Nena.Bloom@nau.edu