RuralStruc. Moroccan agriculture: Constraints and new challenges N.Akesbi, D.Benatya, N.El Aoufi Dakar – M’bour, 12 April 2006. Plan. 1. Situation Moroccan agriculture and its constraints… 2. Reminder of agriculture policies From the involvement of the State to its disengagement…
Constraints and new challenges
N.Akesbi, D.Benatya, N.El Aoufi
Dakar – M’bour, 12 April 2006
Moroccan agriculture and its constraints…
2. Reminder of agriculture policies
From the involvement of the State to its disengagement…
3. Questions and tomorrow’s stakes…
Risks and dangers of short-sighted liberalization
1.1. Deficiencies of a production still handicapped by the climate constraints
1.2. Trade deficits and increasing food dependency
1.3. Dangerous degradation of natural resources
1.4. Human resources: poverty and analphabetism
1.5. Land tenure structures disadvantageous to modernization
1.6. Farming and productive systems still little intensive
1.7. A sector badly articulated with the rest of the economy
1.8. Insufficient financial resources and unequally distributed
GDP and Agriculture GDP:
Evolution of average growth rates by decades.
Evolution of the reserve ratio in the agro-food balance
Self-sufficiency rate of certain basic products
(1 Active Ag = 2.3 ha; 5.2 (Tun), 14.1 (Sp), 22.8 (Fra)
* 5.5 Mha under risk of erosion
* Annual loss of 22 000 ha of arable land
(urbanization, overexploitation of soils…)
* Annual loss of 31 000 ha of forest
* Area estimated at 93% «medium to highly degraded»
(1185 m3 in 1990 and 651 m3 in 2025)
In 2005, Morocco was classified as in « hydric stress»
Annual cost of degradation: 4.6% of GDP in 2000
* 81% analphabet (76% of SAU)
* 68% are over 45 years old (45% more than 55 years)
But 71% are -5ha and –25% of SAU
Under the viability threshold
41% of exploitations and 5% of SAU
Reduction of half of the unities sold: 2380 between 1986 and 1990 to 1070 between 1999 and 2003.
*Absence of structured distribution circuits
*Shortcoming of recognized quality norms
*Weakness of professional organizations
*Failure of conservation infrastructures, of transportation and of freight…
Is this agriculture, which is more a «way of life» than an economic activity, “summoned” to pick up on the challenge of the opening up to competition…
Investments, management, credits and subsidies, fiscal issues, commercialization…
Withdrawal of the state, liberalization, privatization..
Double impasse of a double strategy:
Import-substitution and Export Promotion
3.1. What food security?
What are the risks and impacts of the exchange liberalization in the country’s equilibrium?
3.2. What State withdrawal?
3.3. Prices and subsidies:
What regularization for what competitiveness?
3.4. Environment: What inheritance are we going to leave to our children?
3.5. What State for what regulation?
A global and bookkeeping approach…
Availability + Accessibility
This concept raises the question:
Who is going to produce to satisfy what needs?
Otherwise, food sovereignty states a Right, the right of a population, in the framework of the State, or a Union of States, to provide itself with the means to produce for itself its own nutrition.
In the end, it’s the right to define an agriculture policy and to provide the means to implement it…
Liberalization of the rotations and choice of the farmers
Ex. of sugar cultures: Surface of sugar cultures has stagnated and Bet low, and as the rdts stagnate, the self-sufficiency rate decreases from 64% to 52% (between 1986/90 and 2000-03).
Policy choices or economic decisions?
Lack of competitiveness of the Moroccan agriculture as compared to the performing and State subsidized agricultures
Last study of the WB: «Sensible negative impacts on poor rural population in certain regions and for certain types of households, impacts that should be taken into consideration by social protection policies»
(Households already vulnerable; Regions of Chaouia-Ouardigha, Rabat, Tadla-Azilal, Meknès-Tafilalet)
Beyond the quality of quantitative studies, two important questions are introduced:
Opportunities for vegetables, some industrial and fruit cultures (preserved vegetables, aromatic plants, citrus fruits, olive oil, wine grapes…)
All vegetable and animal productions…
A withdrawal that has often created more of a «void» than the long expected «shifts»
In a context of insufficient means…
The result has been:
Between rent and agreement …
There where the withdrawal could have suppress rent:
Nothing has been done… (ex: major markets)
There where the «private sector» has always taken advantage of the existing situations: agreements have permitted to perpetuate the control of the market…
(Export of fruits & vegetables, import of basic products, trade of fertilizers and seeds, transformation of subsidized products…)
Exports: Was it necessary to break the «OCE tool»?
When the withdrawal has not permitted neither the emergence of a new order nor the preservation of the gains: Case of ORMVA…
offices reduced to simple «vendeurs d’eau»
… But maintained with considerable active population surpluses
… And a total absence of vision regarding the future.
Un true waste of human and financial resources…
A policy that did not achieved its economic or social objectives
The liberalization process has been well engaged, but the most difficult part remains to be done, which doesn’t satisfy anyone…
How to let go of subsidies when poverty remains so huge?
How to suppress the subsidies and remain competitive?
What alternative regulation model?