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    2. KEY TERMS MEMS three-dimensional objects that perform a mechanical function, whose dimensions are between 1 to 100 micrometers Nanoparticle a particle of material at the nanoscale Nanotechnology a material or structure purposefully manufactured with dimensions between 1 and 100 nanometers to leverage the unique properties it has at that size

    3. Nanosphere a round particle with nanoscale proportions Nanowhiskers - are ten nanometers long, made out of carbon, and designed to be flexible Nanofiber - are defined as fibers with diameters less than 1000 nm nanometers. They can be produced by interfacial polymerization and electrospinning

    4. Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to spin fibers into a nonwoven pattern Polymer - is a large molecule (macromolecule) composed of repeating structural units; encompasses a large class of natural and synthetic materials with a wide variety of properties.

    5. UNIT OBJECTIVES Describe the history of nanotechnology in textiles. Why nanotechnology in textiles? Discuss fabrication of nanofibers. List properties of surface modification. Describe nanoparticle composite fibers. List military uses for nanotechnology.

    6. List new fibers in nanotechnology. Name characteristics of impact resistance. Give examples of athletic apparel that uses nanotechnology. List characteristics of fabric protectors. Describe re-cabling fashion. Discuss anti-pollen fabrics.

    7. Describe anti-static textiles. Discuss water-repellant fabrics. List characteristics of UV-protective textiles. List characteristics of wrinkle resistance fabrics. Describe how swimwear uses nanotechnology. Discuss footwear and nanotechnology.

    8. 20. List future applications of nanotechnology in textiles. 21. List expected salaries for skilled nanotechnology workers. 22. List Oklahoma schools offering courses in nanotechnology

    9. Nanotechnology has been used in the textile industry ever since humans began dyeing fibers and fabrics to impart color. This dates dates back to 2600 B.C. in China. Chemists surface chemistries to color textiles, and to impart many different properties to fibers and fabrics. Today, a nanotechnology spin is often used to market textiles, which have been coated or dyed, to the consumer.

    10. Nanotechnology changed the world of consumer textiles. Manufacturers have created stain-resistant and moisture-wicking fabrics by applying a chemical finish containing nanoparticles to cloth.

    11. WHY NANOTECHNOLOGY? Emotional clothing Odor free clothing Stain repellant clothing Clothing that changes colors UV protection in clothing from zinc-oxide nano-particles Clothing to prevent colds and the flu Clothing that does not need to be washed

    12. FABRICATION OF NANOFIBERS Fibers with diameters of several hundred nanometers or less Nanofibers fabrication is electrospinning Fibers are absorbent, breathable, and/or water- repellent

    13. SURFACE MODIFICATION Nanotechnology is used to impart unique properties to fibers and fabrics. Applications include water and stain repellency, wrinkle resistance, and flame retardation.

    14. NANOPARTICLE COMPOSITE FIBERS Silver particles and carbon nanotubes are used to create antimicrobial fibers that strengthen electrical conductivity.

    15. Military uses socks that can be worn for two weeks between washing Military has invested in fabrics reinforced with nanofibers for high performance, lightweight tents, and awnings that can better endure heavy wear and tear \

    16. Hunting clothes use nanotechnology to cover scent

    17. Light exposure can be used to kill bacteria and viruses on face masks developed with nanotechnology.

    18. NANO-TEX Nanowhiskers allow fabric to breathe without changing how the fabric feels.

    19. SMART TEXTILES 1980s clothing that changed colors; pink when cool; blue when warm 1990s swimmers body suit to streamline swimmers movement and reduce water on the swimmers back 2000+ - electronics embedded within clothing; the cooling jacket which prevents shivering; clothing to monitor heat rate

    20. NANO-TEX (FIBER TREATMENTS) Coolest Comfort moisture drawn from the skin helps body temperature balance Resist Spills liquid beads up and simply rolls off fabric or easily wipes off Repels and Releases Stains liquids roll of and stains wash out easily Resist Static eliminates static in synthetic fabrics

    21. TORAY INDUSTRIES A variety of fabric treatments can be offered by using a nanoscale processing technique called NanoMatrix. Example: Tapguard is used for uniforms in the food industry because it resists soil and repels oil and water.

    22. INKMAX This company developed nano-fine adhesive polymers, 70 nanometers thick, that are found on cotton fabric. This allows ink jet printing with no water.

    23. ANTI-BACTERIAL Silver nanoparticles and titanium dioxide are being added to fibers to provide deodorizing, anti-bacterial, and soil-resistant properties

    24. Japan Exlan offers a fiber called selfclear, which relies on nanoparticles of titanium oxide

    25. The TioTio air catalyst from Sunward Shokai provides yarn with a deodorizing, antibacterial treatment and relies on the use of titanium oxide.

    26. NEW FIBERS Greenyarn based on nano-particles of bamboo charcoal has antimicrobial with deodorizing properties. Japan Wool Textile Nikke Miracle products include: -Wel Warm which has moisture-absorbing and heat- generating properties. -Bambool which combines wool and bamboo fibers so that they are antibacterial, deodorizing, and moisture- bsorbent. -CoolTwist a deodorizing wool and yarn infused with ceramic nanopowder to block UV rays

    27. IMPACT RESISTANCE Liquid Armor (shear thickening fluid) its nanoparticle based coating material allows fabric to remain flexible, but upon impact becomes hard. Used for body armor vests, helmets, and gloves.

    28. d30 has a product made of intelligent molecules that are incorporated in sports gear. It is a thin, flexible sheet like bubble wrap. Viscose fluid and polymer lock upon impact creating a rigid pad.

    29. ATHLETIC APPAREL New Balance created the Skye Crop sports bra that uses nano channel yarn as part of its Lightning Dry Extreme Liner.

    30. Yocum activewear used Coolest Comfort technology from NanoTex to wick away moisture and keep the wearer feeling cool and dry.

    31. Eddie Bauer Relaxed Fit and Classic Fit shirts, Performance Polos, Khakis, wrinkle-resistant shirts Gap Stressfee Khakis Lee LPK Double Pleat and Plain Front LL Bean Double L Chinos and Timberledge Pants Nordstrom Smartcare Pique Polos

    32. FABRIC PROTECTORS Stain resistant Fade resistant

    33. SAFETY TIES Can your 100 percent silk necktie do this? Water just beads right up on Safety Ties made of 100 percent silk.

    34. RE-CABLING FASHION Implanting smell technology into multi-sensorial clothing. Making clothing and accessories that detect and monitor pollutants or change your mood.

    35. ANTI-POLLEN Toray Industries has a fabric that relies on nanotechnology to make them anti-pollen which means pollen grains cannot stick to them.

    36. ANTI-STATIC Lands End is one of the first companies to promote the use of the Nano-Tex Resists Static treatment in their fleece scarves, hats, and gloves.

    37. WATER REPELLANT New Balance Performance Outerwear integrated the Nano-Tex repels and releases stains treatment.

    38. Circa V has a line of parkas, puffer coats, bomber jackets, and down vests that repel liquids.

    39. UV-PROTECTION UV blocking treatment for cotton fabrics was developed using the sol-gel method. A thin layer of titanium dioxide is formed on the surface of the treated cotton fabric which provides excellent UV-protection.

    40. WRINKLE RESISTANCE Nano titanium dioxide and nano-silica are used to improve the wrinkle resistance of cotton and silk.

    41. SWIMWEAR Sandproof by Toray Industries is a fabric that prevents sand from sticking to swimwear Speedo LZR swimsuit uses cold plasma technology to repel water

    42. FOOTWEAR Greenyarn sells socks made of bamboo charcoal fiber. Toasty Feet shoe liners by Polar Wrap are made of highly insulating aero gels that prevent feet from getting cold in the winter weather.

    43. ARC OUTDOORS BROKEN ARROW ArcticShield this cold weather clothing is innovatively thin and unbelievably warm X-System Nano-silver eliminates source of body odor, making hunters nearly invisible to animals keen sense of smell ARC is developing a line of hospital uniforms that will also be anit-microbial

    44. FUTURE APPLICATIONS A nanocoating that could possibly have the ability to self heal Textile surfaces which can remove surface scratches and scuff marks; repel insects; and decolorize red wine spills are under development Nanotechnology is being used to develop sensorized garments with the ability to monitor body temperature and vital signs

    45. Self-ironing suits use nanomaterials that respond to heat. Bioreactive plastic coatings protect the wearer against biological and chemical attacks. Military uniforms change colors on command to camouflage the wearer.

    46. Nanotechnology is a young and growing field. An estimated two million skilled nanotechnology workers will be needed worldwide by the year 2015 one million of them in the U.S. Graduates receive salary offers up to $55,000 annually with a two-year degree. Graduates with a baccalaureate degree can expect salary offers up to $65,000 per year. Students who choose to continue their education can expect salary offers of $100,000.

    47. OKLAHOMA SCHOOLS OFFERING COURSES Oklahoma City Community College Oklahoma State University University of Oklahoma Tulsa Community College University of Tulsa