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PATHOGEN REDUCTION A SCIENTIFIC DIALOGUE PANEL 4: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES REDUCTION OF CONTAMINATIO

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PATHOGEN REDUCTION A SCIENTIFIC DIALOGUE PANEL 4: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES REDUCTION OF CONTAMINATIO - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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PATHOGEN REDUCTION A SCIENTIFIC DIALOGUE PANEL 4: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES REDUCTION OF CONTAMINATION AT SLAUGHTER. John N. Sofos May 7, 2002. Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter. Decontamination Processes or Interventions Before hide removal

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slide1
PATHOGEN REDUCTION A SCIENTIFIC DIALOGUE

PANEL 4: INTERVENTION STRATEGIES

REDUCTION OF CONTAMINATION AT SLAUGHTER

John N. Sofos

May 7, 2002

slide2
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Decontamination Processes or Interventions
  • Before hide removal
    • Animal cleaning and hair removal
    • Chemical dehairing
  • After hide removal
    • Knife-trimming or Steam-vacuuming
    • Washing/Spraying/Rinsing
      • Water or Chemicals; Cold or Hot
    • Pressurized steam
    • Chilling
  • Multiple Combined/Sequential Interventions
  • Fabrication/Distribution/Processing/Retail?
slide3
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter

ANIMAL CLEANING

AND

HAIR REMOVAL

slide4
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Animal cleaning and hair removal
    • Fecal tag and hair removal
    • Animal washing
    • Variable results
    • Limited application
    • Climate/facilities
    • Alternatives:
      • Segregate soiled animals
      • Reduce slaughter speed
      • Increase personnel
slide6
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Chemical dehairing
    • Effective procedure
    • Sodium sulfide and hydrogen peroxide
    • Spraying
    • Capital investment
    • Waste handling
      • Sodium sulfide: regeneration and reuse
      • Hydrolyzed hair: fertilizer
slide7
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter

KNIFE-TRIMMING

AND

STEAM-VACUUMING

slide8
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Knife-Trimming
    • Required “Zero Tolerance”
    • Variable results for microbial reduction
    • Potential for spreading and cross-contamination
    • Necessary and important for aesthetics
  • Steam-vacuuming
    • Spot decontamination (1 inch)
    • Variable results
    • Equipment maintenance
    • Employee diligence
slide9
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter

CARCASS WASHING

AND

DECONTAMINATION

slide10
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Whole (pre-evis) or half (before chilling) carcass
    • Immersion/flooding/deluging/cascading
    • Spraying or rinsing
    • Water or chemical solutions
    • Important variables:
      • Method, stage and time of application
      • Equipment design and maintenance
      • Pressure and nozzle type
      • Temperature
      • Chemicals
      • Duration
slide11
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Carcass decontamination before evisceration
    • Spraying/Rinsing
    • Prevention of attachment
    • Organic acid solutions
    • Spraying pressure limitations
      • Weight gain concerns
    • Water temperature limitations
      • Condensation problems
slide12
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Final carcass water washing
  • Thermal decontamination
    • Hot water (>74oC)
    • Pressurized steam
  • Chemical decontamination
    • Spraying/Rinsing
    • Organic acids (1.5-2.5%)
    • Acetic
    • Lactic
    • Warm (55oC)
slide13
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Chemical decontamination
    • Chlorine/Chlorine dioxide (20-50 ppm)
    • Trisodium phosphate (8-12%)
    • Ozone
    • Acidified sodium chlorite
    • Peroxyacetic acid-based
    • Activated lactoferrin
    • Cetylpyridinium chloride
    • Acidified calcium sulfate
    • Hydrogen peroxide
slide14
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Other chemical decontaminants after carcass washing:
    • Sodium chloride
    • Sodium hydroxide
    • Nisin
    • Potassium sorbate
    • Sodium bisulfate
  • Other decontamination processes after carcass washing:
    • Ionizing radiation
    • UV radiation
    • Microwaves
    • Pulsed light
    • Electric fields
    • Hydrostatic pressure
    • Sonication
slide15
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter

MULTIPLE

COMBINED AND/OR SEQUENTIAL

DECONTAMINATION

slide16
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Decontamination with multiple interventions
    • Combinations of treatments:
      • Warm acid solutions
      • Steam and vacuum
    • Sequential application of:
      • Animal cleaning
      • Chemical dehairing
      • Knife-trimming
      • Steam-vacuuming
      • Pre-evisceration washing
      • Final carcass washing
      • Chemical and/or thermal decontamination
      • Carcass chilling
slide17
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter

Commercial Beef Carcass Decontamination in 6 Plants

Positive/Tested

TreatmentsListeria Salmonella E.coli O157:H7

Control 62/142 43/142 1/142

Trimmed (T) 35/140 11/142 3/142

Washed (W) 39/143 13/144 1/144

T + W 18/143 2/144 2/144

Reagan et al. (1996)

slide18
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter

CARCASS WASHING

AND

DECONTAMINATION

CONCERNS

slide19
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Concerns associated with decontamination processes
    • Variability: plant, animal lot, method, animal type, season, anatomical site, plant site, method of sampling
    • Spreading or redistribution of bacteria
    • Penetration
    • Attachment/Biofilms
    • Removal vs. Inactivation vs. Injury
    • Selection/resistance/adaptation
slide20
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter

Salmonella in 4 Steer/Heifer and 3 Cow/Bull Plants

Animal Type and Season Variation

Sofos et al. (1999)

slide21
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter Animal lot and plant variation in carcass contamination with E. coli O157:H7 (Percent positive) Elder et al. (2000)

Plant Lot Fecal Hide Pre-evis Post-evis Washed

A 1/1 77 11 56 17 0

1/2 0 0 75 0 0

1/3 13 6 56 0 0

2/1 22 0 0 0 0

B 1/1 0 0 0 0 0

1/2 0 0 11 0 0

1/3 10 0 60 38 0

2/1 44 78 89 78 22

C 1/3 30 0 80 60 0

D 1/1 0 0 38 0 0

slide22
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Decontamination intervention concerns
    • Safety of application
      • Toxicology
      • Worker health
      • Product safety
    • Product quality
      • Appearance
      • Taste
      • shelf-life
      • Functionality
    • Environmental concerns
      • Waste/Pollution
      • Equipment
slide23
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter

RECONTAMINATION CONCERNS

AND POTENTIAL FOR

POST-SLAUGHTER DECONTAMINATION

slide24
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Contamination concerns following slaughter
    • Carcass chilling
      • Contamination reduction?
      • Microbial growth?
      • Additional contamination?
      • Chilling rate
      • Chilling uniformity
      • Sanitation and hygiene
slide25
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Carcass fabrication concerns
    • New and additional contamination
    • Spreading and redistribution
    • Microbial growth
    • Sanitation and hygiene
    • Room temperature
    • Time duration
    • Potential decontamination interventions
      • Application technology issues
      • Labeling issues
mean tpc on carcasses belts subprimals as processing time progressed
Mean TPC On Carcasses, Belts & Subprimals As Processing Time Progressed

Log CFU/100 cm2

Time Of Day

Bacon et al. (2002)

slide27
Acid-adapted Listeria monocytogenes in vacuum packaged beefNot-treated: , Water (55°C): , Water (75°C): , Lactic acid (55°C): , Acetic acid (55°C):

a

a

a

a

a

b

a

a

b

b

c

b

2

a

a

b

c

b

d

b

c

d

b

c

c

d

(Ikeda et al., 2001)

slide29
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter Questions/Concerns/Issues
  • Spreading of contamination and cross-contamination
  • Animal lot and plant variation
  • Extent of carcass and product area contaminated
  • Prevalence vs population reductions by decontamination
  • Transfer of contamination from carcasses to meat
  • Fabrication contamination concerns and interventions
  • Instantaneous or short intensity interventions
  • Intensity inadequate for complete inactivation
  • Alteration of metabolic activity of survivors?
  • Changes in plant and meat microbial association
  • Selection/Adaptation/Cross-protection/Virulence?
slide30
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter

SUMMARY

  • Decontamination interventions are useful:
    • Reduce carcass contamination (1-3 logs)
    • Reduce pathogen prevalence
    • Assist plants meet regulatory/industry criteria
  • However, they should be:
    • Evaluated for potential unpredictable risks
    • Optimized for maximum benefits with no risks
  • Consider potential long term effects of interacting sublethal interventions on the microbial ecology of plants and raw and ready-to-eat products
slide31
Reduction of Contamination at Slaughter
  • Select and apply proper interventions of the right intensity and in the correct sequence in order to maximize antimicrobial effects and minimize resistance development
  • Evaluate further processing concerns
  • Research new technologies and beyond slaughter
  • Validation of decontamination technologies
  • Minimize decontamination variations
  • Not ready-to-eat until further processed/cooked
  • Useful in reducing probability of illness when product intentionally or unintentionally undercooked

SUMMARY

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