Lecture 1. Brooklyn College Inorganic Chemistry (Spring 2009). Prof. James M. Howell Room 359NE (718) 951 5458; email@example.com Office hours : Mon. & Thu. 9:00 am-9:30 am & 5:30 – 6:30 Textbook: Inorganic Chemistry, Miessler & Tarr, 3rd. Ed., Pearson-Prentice Hall (2004).
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
(718) 951 5458; firstname.lastname@example.org
Office hours: Mon. & Thu. 9:00 am-9:30 am & 5:30 – 6:30
Organic chemistry is:
the chemistry of life
the chemistry of hydrocarbon compounds
C, H, N, O
Inorganic chemistry is:
The chemistry of everything else
The chemistry of the whole periodic Table
numbers for H, C
Catalysts: oxides, sulfides, zeolites, metal complexes, metal particles and colloids
Semiconductors: Si, Ge, GaAs, InP
Polymers: silicones, (SiR2)n, polyphosphazenes, organometallic catalysts for polyolefins
Superconductors: NbN, YBa2Cu3O7-x, Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oz
Magnetic Materials: Fe, SmCo5, Nd2Fe14B
Lubricants: graphite, MoS2
Nano-structured materials: nanoclusters, nanowires and nanotubes
Fertilizers: NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4
Disinfectants/oxidants: Cl2, Br2, I2, MnO4-
Water treatment: Ca(OH)2, Al2(SO4)3
Industrial chemicals: H2SO4, NaOH, CO2
Organic synthesis and pharmaceuticals: catalysts, Pt anti-cancer drugs
Biology: Vitamin B12 coenzyme, hemoglobin, Fe-S proteins, chlorophyll (Mg)
A revision of basic concepts
Energy levels in the hydrogen atom
Energy of transitions in the hydrogen atom
Balmer series (vis)
of circular orbits
fine for H but fails
for larger atoms
eventually also failed!
Lyman series (UV)
quantization of energy
h = Planck’s constant
n = frequency
E = hn
h = Planck’s constant
m = mass of particle
v = velocity of particle
l = h/mv
Dx uncertainty in position
Dpx uncertainty in momentum
Dx Dpx h/4p
E : Energy
From precise orbits to orbitals:
mathematical functions describing the probable location and characteristics of electrons
probability of finding the electron in a particular portion of space
Quantization of certain observables occur Energies can only take on certain values.
It is these requirements that introduce quantization.
Definition of the Potential, V(x)
V(x) = 0 inside the box 0 <x<l
V(x) = infinite outside box; x <0 or x> l, particle constrained to be in box
X(x) is the wave function; E is a constant interpreted as the energy. We seek both X and E.
Standard technique: assume a form of the solution and see if it works.
Standard Assumption: X(x) = a ekx
Where both a and k will be determined from auxiliary conditions (“well behaved”).
Recipe: substitute trial solution into the DE and see if we get X back multiplied by a constant.
½ k2 ekx = E ekx
k = +/- i sqrt(2E)
There are two solutions depending on the choice of sign.
General solution becomes
X (x) = a ei sqrt(2E)x + b e –i sqrt(2E)x
where a and b are arbitrary constants
Using the Cauchy equality: eiz = cos(z) + i sin(z)
X(x) = a cos (sqrt(2E)x) + b (cos(-sqrt(2E)x)
+ i a sin (sqrt(2E)x) + i b(sin(-sqrt(2E)x)
X(x) = (a + b) cos (sqrt(2E)x) + i (a - b) sin(sqrt(2E)x)
Or with c = a + b and d = i (a-b)
X(x) = c cos (sqrt(2E)x) + d sin(sqrt(2E)x)
We can verify the solution as follows
-½ d2/dx2X(x) = E X(x) (??)
- ½ d2/dx2 (c cos (sqrt(2E)x) + d sin (sqrt(2E)x) )
= - ½ ((2E)(- c cos (sqrt(2E)x) – d sin (sqrt(2E)x)
= E (c cos (sqrt(2E)x + d sin(sqrt(2E)x))
= E X(x)
Introduction of constraints:
-Wave function must be continuous, must be 0 at x = 0 and x = l
X(x) must equal 0 at x = 0 or x = l
c = 0, since cos (0) = 1
and second constraint requires that sin(sqrt(2E) l ) = 0
Which is achieved by (sqrt(2E) l ) = np which is where sine produces 0
Where n = 1,2,3…
Atomic problem, even for only one electron, is much more complex.
The solution of Schrödinger’s equations for a one electron atom in 3D produces 3 quantum numbers
Relativistic corrections define a fourth quantum number
1, 2, 3, ...
Determines most of the energy
0, 1, 2, ..., n-1
Describes the angular dependence (shape) and
contributes to the energy for multi-electron atoms
0, ± 1, ± 2,..., ± l
Describes the orientation in space relative to an applied external magnetic field.
Describes the orientation of the spin of the electron in space
Orbitals are named according to the l value:
n = 1, 2, 3, 4 ….
determines the energy of the electron (in a one electron atom) and
indicates (approximately) the orbital’s effective volume
n = 1 2 3
l = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, …, (n-1)
s, p, d, f, g, …..
determines the number of nodal surfaces
(where wave function = 0).