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Executive Control Function

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    1. Executive Control Function Overview & Implications for Travel Training When Clients Have Impairments

    3. What is executive control function? Also called executive control or executive function Initiating and planning Monitoring & following through Problem solving unexpected changes Metacognition

    4. What travel trainers see Apathy Impulsivity Poor judgment Distractibility Cant gauge task difficulty Dont know how well/badly things are going Rigidity

    5. Example: Bill Knowing how doesnt = being successful

    6. Prevalence: Mental Illness Not a diagnosis in itself Virtually all mental illness in DSM Schizophrenia Bi-Polar Disorder Depression Anxiety Disorders

    7. Prevalence: Developmental Developmental disabilities Downs Syndrome Mental Retardation Autistic Disorder Aspergers Disorder Attention Deficit / Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    8. Prevalence: Aging Early Alzheimers Older well adult

    9. Prevalence: Neurological Physical illnesses like Parkinsons, multiple sclerosis, TBI, ALS History of alcohol abuse Stroke

    10. Brain anatomy Frontal lobe Cortex Neural pathways

    11. Information Processing Executive Function or Metacognition

    12. Three Key Elements in Travel Training Characteristics of the trainee Characteristics of the task (route) Characteristics of the environment

    13. ECF Strategies Learn trainees preferred ways of doing things Determine best time of day for training Reinforce / identify motivation Identify destination(s)

    14. ECF Strategies cont. Express your belief in trainees ability Make modifications Allow trainees to learn from their mistakes Strategize how to sustain attention to details

    15. ECF Strategies cont. Self monitoring by trainee Verbalize what the trip will look like before training session Summarize what they did on the trip after training session

    16. ECF Strategies cont. Ask trainee to verbalize how easy or difficult they think the trip will be, or was Limit the number of problem solving options Educate family and care providers

    17. ECF Strategies cont. Take into account the role of stress and anxiety Acknowledge / celebrate accomplishments Make references to the next training session

    18. ECF Strategies cont. Understand mood changes Be aware of your own attitudes towards trainee Understand features of their disability