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Environmental Economics and Valuation. Alberto Longo Department of Economics and International Development University of Bath, England A.Longo@bath.ac.uk Tel. +44 1225 384508 Integrated Assessment of Trade Related Policies and Biological Diversity in the Agricultural Sector

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environmental economics and valuation

Environmental Economics and Valuation

Alberto Longo

Department of Economics and International Development

University of Bath, England

A.Longo@bath.ac.uk

Tel. +44 1225 384508

Integrated Assessment of Trade Related Policies and Biological Diversity in the Agricultural Sector

International Environment House, Châteleine, Geneva, 15 July 2005

why valuation
Why valuation?
  • Once policies, biodiversity indicators, scenarios, targets have been identified, it is useful to compare them with the status quo by quantifying impacts in monetary terms.
  • We have the opportunity to advise policy makers!
  • Enable environmental impacts to be included in Cost-Benefit-Analysis (CBA) and therefore in Integrated Assessment
  • To take account of environmental damages/benefits caused by the consequences of trade related policies
  • To consider the monetary benefits of additional policies that protect/enhance the quality of the environment (biodiversity)
categories of environmental benefits
Categories of environmental benefits
  • Total economic value = Use values + Non use values
  • Non use values= Option values + Existence values + Bequest values
  • Use Values: benefits that derive from the actual use of the environment (using herbs for medicinal purposes)
  • Option values: additional value placed on a natural resource by those people who want to have the option of using the goods and services in the future
  • Existence values: People wish to maintain or improve environmental assets out of sympathy for animals and nature or from moral conviction.
  • Bequest values: the desire to preserve environmental assets for the enjoyment of other people of both the present generation and the future generations.
how do we valuate the effects of policies on biodiversity
How do we valuate the effects of policies on biodiversity?
  • Market based approaches
    • Production function
    • Cost of illness
    • Cost based
  • Non-marked valuation techniques
    • Hedonic pricing method
    • Travel cost method
    • Contingent valuation
    • Choice experiments
    • Benefits transfer
are these techniques new
Are these techniques new?
  • Harold Hotelling (1949) “An Economic Study of the Monetary Valuation of Recreation in the National Parks,” Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service and Recreational Planning Division.
  • In a letter to the US Park Service, Hotelling suggests to use Travel Cost Model to assess the benefits obtained by visitors of a national park.
slide6
The Contingent Valuation Method: The protection of cultural monuments in Armenia(Longo and Alberini, Report to the World Bank, 2005)

Willingness to pay to preserve cultural heritage monuments (churches, monasteries, archaeological sites, caravanserai, ancient bridges) and the surrounding environment

  • n=1,000
  • In-person interviews (household survey)
  • mean WTP= 4,125 AMD (=8 US$)
travel cost model visitors at cultural monuments in armenia
Travel Cost Model: Visitors at cultural monuments in Armenia
  • n=500
  • on-site interviews
  • only local Armenians
  • access value ranges from 5,940 AMD (=11.53 US$) to 14,000 ADM (=27.18 US$)
how to carry out a valuation exercise
How to carry out a valuation exercise?
  • Once we identified the scenario(s) (one scenario could be the status quo), or the policies and the indicators we want to valuate, we need to:
    • Identify whose welfare is affected (or whose welfare we are interested in)
    • Clearly define the object of the valuation
    • Choose the most appropriate methodology (considering budget constraints, country – case specific)
studies of conservation of a single species
Studies of conservation of a single species

Source: Nunes and van der Bergh, 2001

multiple species valuation studies
Multiple species valuation studies

Source: Nunes and van der Bergh, 2001

natural habitat valuation studies
Natural habitat valuation studies

Source: Nunes and van der Bergh, 2001

conclusions
Conclusions
  • Effects on biodiversity caused by trade related policies are important, especially in less developed countries
  • Need to value changes in the level of biodiversity in order to better inform policy makers
  • Valuation exercises should be carried out ex-ante (ex-post valuation studies are also useful, but once we loose an ecosystem it could be impossible to go back to the status quo)
slide15
Choice experiments to assess the WTP forcleaning up contaminated sites(Regional Science and Urban Economics, 2005)
  • In-person interviews
  • n=293
  • conditional logit model
  • value of cleanup = 2,5 M€

(considering value of the project = 7 M€)

contingent valuation on soil erosion journal of environmental planning and management 2005
Contingent valuation on soil erosion(Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 2005)
  • WTP for the protection of the Island of St. Erasmo in the Venice lagoon, Italy.
  • Telephone survey
  • n=1,330
  • ‘double-bounded’ model
  • mean WTP= €66.61
  • median WTP= €20.39

(weibull distribution)