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Cybernetics - a different perspective

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  1. Cybernetics - a different perspective • Dr Richard Mitchell • Cybernetics, School of Systems Engineering • The University of Reading • Cybernetic principles are applicable to a great variety of systems, technological, biological, environmental or a mixture. This talk demonstrates this by illustrating the application of feedback in diverse situations. • For more info, see • http://www.cyber.rdg.ac.uk • R.J.Mitchell@rdg.ac.uk Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  2. Cybernetics – a different perspective In each of the windows, and the associated descriptions later in the talk, we see different applications of feedback – which is key to all Cybernetic systems. Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  3. Standard & Cybernetic Approaches Standard View: Aristotelian (Greek) - Cause & Effect The Open Loop View The (practical) Cybernetic view : Closed Loop – Has Feeback • Irony: Cybernetics comes from a Greek Word! Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  4. Feedback Problems ? • System more complicated • Can lead to run away disasters Arms race (human or animal) is similar However such feedback can be useful for quick changes Feedback can also be advantageous - for instance for control Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  5. Feedback Advantages - for Control This will be illustrated by first considering the steersman Without control – like having eyes closed With control – looking where you are going Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  6. As Applied To Other Systems Speed Control of Car (or other vehicle) Positioning Robot Gripper Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  7. Temperature Control Of Rooms Of Human Body Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  8. Learning Feedback Control fine for some simple systems. For more advanced, need intelligent control .. Must learn Learning is a feedback process: ‘You learn by your mistakes’ Trial and Error – used by our Robots / Babies Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  9. Neural Network Learning Like brain has network of neurons Each neuron sums products of each input and weight of connection Provide inputs, calculate outputs But must learn weights Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  10. Human Computer Interaction Just positioning a mouse is a feedback process Ultimate HCI is ‘Virtual Reality’ – human computer loop Not only view world, but hear, feel, smell it also … Also, Augmented Reality - mixed real and virtual world. Teleoperation - remote control where operator given input to suggest he/she at remote location. Needs force feedback Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  11. Daisyworld – to illustrate feedback • Lovelock’s Imaginary world to demonstrate Gaia principle • Life and Earth work together to mutual advantage • Grey Planet - black/white daisy seeds in soil • Daisies grow best at 22OC No grow if < 7OC or > 37OC Daisyworld’s Sun is heating up - just like Earth’s What happens to Daisyworld’s temperature? Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  12. Daisyworld Continued Once 7OC daisies grow, heating or cooling, until too hot Note, for long period, temp constant – better if more species! Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  13. Cybernetics new – but feedback old Watt Steam Engine Governor Control speed of steam engine Also 250 BC Water Clock Measures Time Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  14. Degrees in Systems Engineering Comp Eng EE & CS Comp Sci Elec Eng IT Sys Eng IT & Man AI & Cyb EE & Cyb Robotics CS & Cyb Cybernetics BioM & Cyb Cyb & Cont Degrees accredited by IEE, InstMC, BCS. Some MEng, some BSc/BEng; some ‘applied’ year in industry Also have MScs in Cybernetics, Informatics and Network Centred Computing Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  15. Research in Systems Engineering Cybernetic Intelligence Ambient & Pervasive Intelligence Interactive Systems Parallel Emergent Distributed Algorithms Instrumentation & Signal Processing Informatics Research Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  16. Interactive R2-D2 Toy Designed using cybernetic principles by ex-Cybernetics lecturer and graduate, Dave Keating. Arose from research here on mobile robots … Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  17. Robotics Research Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  18. More on Robotics Yorick – Robot Head Prosthetic Hand Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  19. GENTLE – robot rehab for strokes Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  20. HAPTIC and VR Research In your own little world! Phantom – so can ‘feel’ Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  21. Implant - ‘Cyborg’ experiment ?Ultimate human computer interaction chip (smaller than £1 coin) implanted … Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  22. Terahertz and Infra-Red THz .. Latest part of e.m. spectrum to be used .. For sensing, security … Infra-Red Multi-Layer Filters .. For measuring gases … used in space Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006

  23. All this happens In this modern building On the picturesque campus At the heart of the Thames Valley .. Easy access to rest of UK … and to jobs Cybernetics – an Introduction © Dr Richard Mitchell 2006