Bird Diversity and Habitat. Experimental Design. Compare bird species in two habitats (U of A campus and Catalina Mountains) Do bird counts in these two areas and record the findings Statistical analysis to compare bird diversity between the two habitats. Hypothesis.
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Wild rock doves nest in crevices along rocky seaside cliffs, close to agriculture or open shrub vegetation.
In cities, the skyscrapers tend to take the place of their natural cliff surroundings.
-They eat mainly seeds includes corn, oats, cherry, along with small amounts of knotweed, elm, poison ivy, and barley.
-In cities, feral pigeons also eat popcorn, cake, peanuts, and breadColumba livia(Rock Dove and Common Pigeon)
The Cactus Wren is common throughout the southwestern United States.
This arid desert, dominated by cholla and other succulent cacti and spiny trees and shrubs, is characterized by high temperatures, low humidity, and scarce water.
The Cactus Wren primarily eats insects, including ants, beetles, grasshoppers, and wasps.
Occasionally, it will take seeds and fruits.
Almost all water is obtained from food, and free standing water is rarely used even when foundCampylorhynchus brunneicapillus(Cactus Wren)
Gambel's Quail live in warm deserts with brushy and thorny vegetation
These birds also survive well in cultivated communities and prefer mesquite lined river valleys and drainages near these lands
Common plants found in the quails' habitat include: desert hackberry, mesquites, little leaf sumac, desert thorns, catclaw acacia, scrub oak, and various other types of desert shrubbery
Ninety percent of the Gambel's Quail diet comes from plants.
Various types of seeds and leaves are eaten throughout the year.
During certain times of year fruits and berries from cacti are eaten.
A few insects are eaten during the nesting season in spring and early summer.Callipepla gambelii(Gambel's Quail)
Mourning doves like farms, small towns, open wood, scrub, roadsides and grasslands.
Mourning doves eat a wide variety of seeds, waste grain, fruit and insects.
Occasionally, they eat in trees and bushes when the ground foods have become scarce.
Doves also like to ingest agricultural crops. Those especially coveted are cereal grains such as corn, millet, rye, barley, and oats.
On rare occassions, doves can also be seen preying on grasshoppers, ants, beetles, and snails.Zenaida macroura(Mourning Dove)
House Sparrows like areas that have been modified by humans, including farms, residential, and urban areas. They are absent from uninhabited woodlands, deserts, forests, and grasslands.
House Sparrows forage on the ground, eating a variety of seeds and grains, sometimes obtained from livestock feed or livestock droppings. They also eat insects, spiders, and fruits in the summer.Passer domesticus(House Sparrow)
desert scrub, chaparral, arid open woodland, brush
consists mostly of animals (insects, reptiles, rodents, birds, etc.), but will occasionally eat fruit (mostly from cactus) and seeds.Road Runner
Sparrow – 81
Pigeon – 19
Mourning Dove – 48
Sparrow – 12
Cactus Wren – 7
Quail – 27
Road Runner – 2
Pigeon – 4Data Collected
Ho : p1 = p2
Ha : p1 > p2
Find Test Statistic- Z
x = number of species counted
n = total birds counted in habitat
Z = 1.95
Find P Value
P = P(Z > z)
P = P(Z > 1.95)
We reject our null hypothesis. We have reason to believe that more Mourning Doves habitat the Catalina Mountains versus the University of Arizona campus.
This can be concluded since our P-Value is smaller than our significance level of 0.05.Calculations: Using Inference on Proportions for Two Independent Samples Z-test
*The Shannon Diversity Index is used to compare species diversity
between study sites.
Shannon Diversity Index equations used:
H1= (nlogn- ∑ f1log f1) / n
varH = (∑ f1log2 f1 –(∑ f1log f1)2 / n)/ n2
t = H1 – H2 / (√ var H1 + var H2 )
*t – to determine if two values you obtain for the index are
significantly different you can use the t-test
df = (varH1 + var H2 )2 / ((varH1)2 / n1 + (var H2) 2 / n2 )
Sample Calculation for Pigeons:
H1= (23log23- ∑ 19log 19) / 23 = .3054
varH1 = (∑19log2 19–(∑ 19log 19)2 / 23)/ 232 = .0102
H2= (23log23- ∑ 4log 4) / 23 = 1.257
varH2 = (∑4log2 4–(∑ 4log 4)2 / 23)/ 232 = .0022
t = .3054 – 1.257 / (√ .0102 + .0022 ) = 8.55
df=(.0102 + .0022 )2/((.0102)2/19+(.0022) 2/4 )= 23.35
t > 2.8 therefore we reject the null hypothesis