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Micro to Nano Technologies. By: Brent Hare Lenox laser March 30, 2004. Micro to Nano Technologies. Micro - Prefix meaning one millionth, 1/1,000,000 Nano – Prefix meaning one billionth, 1/1,000,000,000 . The Powers of 10. Current Micro Technologies.

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micro to nano technologies

Micro to Nano Technologies

By: Brent HareLenox laser

March 30, 2004

micro to nano technologies2
Micro to Nano Technologies
  • Micro - Prefix meaning one millionth, 1/1,000,000
  • Nano – Prefix meaning one billionth, 1/1,000,000,000
current micro technologies
Current Micro Technologies
  • Photonics - Optical Apertures and Flow Orifices
  • Electronics – Semiconductor chips, anodic bonding
  • MEMS – Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
  • Communication – Fiber optics, switching interconnects
  • Biotechnology - cell filtration, drug discovery
current nano technologies
Current Nano Technologies
  • Molecular manufacturing – Precision down to the atomic level
  • Nanotubes –Building advanced lightweight materials as well as advancements in LCD technologies
  • Medicine – Devices that will flow through the circulatory system
  • Nanocomposites – Assisting in vast improvements in material compositions
  • Electronics – Advanced CMOS and silicon transistor integration with lithography
micro scaling to nano
Micro scaling to Nano

Click Picture to watch Nanotechnology movie


micro optics
Micro - Optics
  • Ability to drill to ½ micron for half the wavelength
  • Micromirrors for next generation telescope optics


Microlens Arrays


micro electro
Micro - Electro
  • Pentium 4-
    • Top speed – 3.4ghz
    • Built on a 0.13 micron die
    • 168 million transistors on 200mm2


micro chemical
Micro - Chemical
  • Miniature fuel cells
  • Micro channels
  • Chemical reactors

Micro Chemical Channel

Micro Fuel Cell


50 Micron Chemical Reactor

micro flow devices
Micro Flow Devices

Swagelock has

begun to minaturize

its flow components


6in. x 18in.

Photos from Pittcon

3ft. X 4ft.

micro engineering
Micro - Engineering
  • Micro gears
  • Micro embossing and stamping
  • Microactuators (Tiny Motors)
  • Micro-valves

Micro embossing

Complex Ratchet



micro mechanical
Micro - Mechanical

Microactuators – tiny motors


micro mechincal
Micro Mechincal

World’s smallest steam engine, the pistons are 5 microns and it actually works

Micro Clutch mechanism, gears are 50 microns



Print Cartridges

  • Capillary uptake
  • Piezoelectric inkjets
  • Flow sensing
  • Drug dispensing
  • Flow based separation

Lab-On-Chip for DNADetection and Analysis


Micro Canals

micro communications
Micro Communications
  • Full optical switching technologies
  • Most fiber optic backbone in the United States ranges from 1.3 to 1.5 micrometers and can transmit over 5 GBps and can span 93 miles

Fiber optic switching


e blox scaleable interfaceable stackable
e-blox (Scaleable, Interfaceable, Stackable)
  • Micro to nano interfaces for simple solutions
  • e-blox allows you to build backbones connecting Gas, Liquid, Electro, Optical – Fiber/Micro, and nanotechnologies in order to build unique devices for MEMS and other technologies
  • Imagine devices built with the integration of all of these competing technologies on a Scaleable, Interfaceable, Stackable solution at the micro and nano level
mems powder metal die casting for building small parts
MEMS (Powder Metal Die Casting for building small parts)
  • The ability to arrange particles and then compress them into a die to build ultra small parts that can be used in MEMS technologies i.e. e-blox
  • They have the ability to create miniature tools and dies to help build MEMS technologies

Micro Sensor 0.051mm


rapid prototyping
Rapid Prototyping
  • Use of 3D CAD modeling with SolidEdge
  • 3D Scanning Technologies – Use of lasers and optics to scan surface objects
  • 3D Holography Technologies – Holograms for real visualizations

3D CAD Model


electroforming technologies
Electroforming Technologies

Electroforming is the process of fabricating a part from the plating itself. A shaped mandrel is plated long enough to build up a "stand alone" thickness. The mandrel is then removed by melting, chemically etching or exploiting differences in thermal coefficients of expansion between the electroformed part and the mandrel.


etching technologies
Etching Technologies
  • Wet Etching – Dissolves materials with chemicals and the use of masks
  • Dry Etching - ion etching (RIE), sputter etching, and vapor phase etching are used by blasting the material surface with ion gases


lithography technologies
Lithography Technologies
  • Lithography is a printing process where image areas and non-image areas are separated chemically
  • Silicon semiconductor companies use extremely small masks to mark silicon wafers with 248 nm, 193nm, and now 13.4nm wavelengths of light


piezeo electronics for micro to nano movement
Piezeo electronics (for micro to nano movement)
  • Pizeoelectronics are materials that produce an electrical response to a mechanical force.
  • Can be used in Vibration Monitoring, Imaging Arrays, Doppler Probes, Biotech, Pharmaceutical, and Industrial & Process Control
first nanochips
First NanoChips
  • Integrated circuits can be made down to 50nm
  • 50nm chips are made using 193nm lithography (smaller than a wavelength so they use diffraction corrections)


next generation nano lithography
Next Generation Nano Lithography
  • To build chips smaller than 50nm, new lithography technologies must be created – The above technology can use 13nm ultraviolet wavelengths


nano biotechnologies
Nano Biotechnologies
  • Scientists have developed a way to use DNA for minuscule wires that can be used in nanoelectronics
  • Ability to have insulated wires sized at 25nm and 20 microns in length


  • Conductive and high-strength composites
  • Energy storage and energy conversion devices
  • Sensors
  • Medical drug delivery and DNA research
  • Nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects

Nanotubes are built by arrangingseveral atoms in a closed pattern to form an unbelievably small tube