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Helping People Adapt & Resistance to Change. R ESISTANCE TO C HANGE. The Background I. General Sense of Loss . Change although evangelized good by theoreticians, it can create feelings . Loss of Security. Loss of Power. Loss of Prestige. Anger. Loss of Respect.

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slide2

RESISTANCETO CHANGE

The Background I

General Sense of Loss

Change although evangelized good by theoreticians, it can create feelings

Loss of Security

Loss of Power

Loss of Prestige

Anger

Loss of Respect

Breaking of the employee – company psychological contract

Anxiety

Loss of Status Quo

Loss of Approval

People React to change as they react during the grieving process after the loss of a loved one.

Loss of Power

Loss of Control

Loss of Certainty

5 Stages (Kubler-Ross, 1969)

Denial

Anger

Bargaining

Depression

Acceptance

slide3

1

Shock

2

Defensive Retreat

3

Acknowledgement

4

Acceptance and Adaptation

RESISTANCETO CHANGE

The Background II

The 4 stages Harvard Model

  • The Progress from stage to stage is linear & must not be accelerated unless with ultimate caution.
  • People’s change adaptation speed varies.
  • People might get stuck in one of stages: 1)Change is rather chaotic 2)People perceive change according to their own individual experiences.
  • Change hits from more than one directions
slide4

RESISTANCETO CHANGE

The Reasons

4 Common Reasons of resistance

(Bedeian, 1980)

Parochial Self-Interest

  • Effort to protect Status Quo
  • Unwillingness to move out of “Comfort Zone”
  • Personal Stake in Knowledge & Skills

Misunderstanding & Luck of Trust

  • Not understand the reasoning of change
  • Incomplete and Incorrect information
  • Increase of defensiveness

Contradictory Assessment

  • Cost & Benefit evaluation of change
  • Different Perceptions
  • Contradictory assessments due to lack of information

Low Tolerance of Change

  • People differ in their ability to handle change.
  • Self-Doubt and Questioning / Low Tolerance for ambiguity
slide5

RESISTANCETO CHANGE

Kotter & Schlesinger, 1979

The Way to Overcome it

6 Steps to

manage resistance

1 Education & Commitment

  • Share perceptions, knowledge & objectives with the stakeholders – Variety of ways for information sharing

2 Participation & Involvement

  • Involve resisters in Planning & Implementation–Reduces Resistance & Strengthens commitment

3 Facilitation & Support

  • Counseling and Therapy–Overcome Fears & Anxiety – Develop people’s awareness

4 Negotiation & Agreement

  • Mutually agreeable compromise, through trading and exchange–Do not create precedent for future changes

5 Manipulation & Co-Optation

  • Sidestep Resistance–“Diplomatic” Management of Change details–Manipulation Techniques & “Power Skills” to influence people

6 Implicit & Explicit Coercion

  • No Consensus–Profound Disagreement–No Ground Shifting–Force & Threats, but NO Violence–“Dictatorial Transformation”
slide6

HELPING PEOPLE ADAPT

Help Yourself

  • Strong Emotions are not comfortable or move us forward.
  • So how do we control them?
  • Let the emotional side express itself & then pass control to the rational side.

Overcome Powerlessness

  • Establish sense of control in other areas of life
  • Avoid taking on other efforts that sap energy
  • Find practical ways to exert control over life during this period of flux

Inventory the Gains & the Losses

  • Develop objectivity for what is happening
  • Try to see benefits not losses to a new situation
  • Balance Losses to Gains in a realistic way

Re – Anchor

  • Balance between work–related anchor points & emotion–related anchor points
  • When a point is uprooted obtain stability by strengthening anchor points elsewhere
slide7

HELPING PEOPLE ADAPT

Managers Helping Employees I

  • Managers address successfully technical issues of change but very often ignore the human side.
  • Managers are there to lead their people or else they are simply ineffective.
  • Managers should help employees through fear.
  • Managers should think sometimes more like Military Leaders…
  • Change is War!

Coping with Shock Stage

  • Prepare people long before change hits.
  • Periodically inoculate your stuff with small doses of change
  • Find new anchors for “lost” employees
  • Provide opportunities for people to vent their feelings
  • Be a good listener – Do not sell change
  • Help with Stress Management
slide8

HELPING PEOPLE ADAPT

Managers Helping Employees II

Coping with Defensive Retreat Stage

  • Maximize or strengthen “Small Group Cohesion”
  • Give people a source of identity, safety & support
  • Help people connect to each other

Coping with Acknowledgment Stage

  • Grief for what has been lost and Liberating Feelings–Use Them
  • Continue listening to people – But now stress the benefits of the new Status Quo
  • Build more anchors and more group cohesion
  • Encourage slow risk taking

Coping with Acceptance and Adaptation Stage

  • Facilitate those who do not finally adapt
  • Work on group dynamics
  • Understand & nourish personal feelings of accomplishment
  • Focus on Action–Not Feelings
  • Outplace those who are unable after all to fit in
slide9

HELPING PEOPLE ADAPT

&

RESISTANCE TO CHANGE

Summary

  • Resistance to change is a normal part of adaptation to change
  • Managers must learn to cope with resistance
  • Resisters may provide useful information about the people who have a strong interest in maintaining the current Status Quo
  • People usually respond through the 5 or 4 stages
  • People ought to help themselves
  • Managers must & can help people survive these stages through a number of methods and ways