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Defining and Measuring Stress. Chapter 5. WHAT IS STRESS?. RESPONSE TO INCREASED DEMAND A NEGATIVE EMOTION A MOTIVATOR THE CAUSE OF ILLNESSES. Cognitive Processing Appraisal. Response Physiological Cognitive Affective. Stressor Event. Behavior Coping. THE STRESSOR.

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Presentation Transcript
what is stress
WHAT IS STRESS?
  • RESPONSE TO INCREASED DEMAND
  • A NEGATIVE EMOTION
  • A MOTIVATOR
  • THE CAUSE OF ILLNESSES
slide3

Cognitive Processing

Appraisal

Response

Physiological

Cognitive

Affective

Stressor

Event

Behavior

Coping

the stressor
THE STRESSOR
  • COULD BE ANY STIMULUS
      • POSITIVE OR NEGATIVE
  • LIFE EVENTS
  • DAILY HASSELS
cognitve processing appraisal
COGNITVE PROCESSING - APPRAISAL
  • LAZARUS POPULARIZED THE IDEA OF APPRAISAL
  • OUR INTERPRETATIONS DICTATE WHAT IS STRESSFUL
  • BASED ON PERCEIVED THREAT
types of appraisal
TYPES OF APPRAISAL
  • PRIMARY
    • The initial appraisal
  • SECONDARY
    • Appraisal of coping ability
      • Options
      • Self-efficacy
      • Outcome Expectancy
the response
THE RESPONSE
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL
    • FIGHT OR FLIGHT
    • BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION SYSTEM (BIS)
  • COGNITIVE
    • WORRY
    • RUMINATION
    • FOCUS
  • AFFECTIVE
    • TENSE
    • SAD/HURT
    • OVERWHELMED
    • PUMPED
physiology of stress
PHYSIOLOGY OF STRESS
  • DIVISIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • NEUROENDOCIRNE SYSTEM
  • ADRENOCORTICAL RESPONSE
  • ADRENOMEDULLARY RESPONSE
slide11

AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

CONTROLS MOBILIZATION OF BODIES RESOURCES – FIGHT/FLIGHT RESPONSE

the effects of ans
THE EFFECTS OF ANS
  • SYMPATHETIC
    • INCREASE
      • HR, RESPIRATION, BP, GLUCOSE UTILIZATION, BLOOD TO MUSCLES
    • DECREASE
      • IMMUNE SYSTEM , DIGESTIVE FUNCTIONS
  • PARASYMATHETIC
    • RETURN TO BASELINE
    • RELAXATION DIGESTION
    • PUPILLARY CONSTRICTION
    • SALIVA FLOW
    • NEAR VISION
summary of stress response
HYPOTHALAMUS RELEASES CRF

PITUITARY RELEASES ACTH

AC – RELEASES CORTISOL

+ENERGY +FOCUS - IMMUNE

AUTONOMIC NEURONS TRAVEL TO AM AND SECRETE Ach

AM - RELEASES E AND NE

INIATES AND DRIVES FIGHT/FLIGHT

SUMMARY OF STRESS RESPONSE

STESSOR IS APPRAISED AS HARMFUL/THREAT

sources of stress
SOURCES OF STRESS
  • ENVIRONMENT
    • CROWDING
    • POLLUTION
    • NOISE
    • URBAN PRESS
  • OCCUPATION
  • RELATIONSHIPS
measuring stress
MEASURING STRESS
  • PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGIAL MEASURES
    • HORMONE LEVELS
    • BP
    • HR
    • GSR
  • LIFE EVENTS SCALES
  • EVERYDAY HASSELS SCALE
coping
Coping
  • Emotion Focused Coping
    • Coping w/the response
  • Problem-Focused Coping
    • Changing the appraisal
    • Changing the event
slide22

EVENT

Problem Focused

Coping

APPRAISAL

RESPONSE

Emotion Focused

Coping

theories of coping problem emotion focused
Theories of Coping: Problem- & Emotion- Focused

Lazarus & Folkman (1984) (Strategy)

Problem-Focused

Emotion-Focused

Resolve cause of problems

Managing emotional impact of problem

Seeking info. Going to GP Think of options Devise plan Change job

Talk to friends Going shopping Drinking Relaxing Avoidance

who uses which
Who Uses Which?

High perceived controllability

Females

Adolescents+

Problem-Focused

Emotion-Focused

Relationship problems

Males

Low perceived controllability

Children

Work problems

Low resources

effectiveness of coping strategies
Effectiveness of Coping Strategies
  • Effectiveness of coping strategy relates to the nature of the problem
  • A flexible approach is better than rigid use of specific style
  • Many studies indicate that problem-solving is overall a better strategy
global factors influencing coping social support
Global Factors Influencing Coping: Social Support
  • Social Support –Material and emotional support from others
    • Emotional
    • Instrumental
    • Informational
  • Structure
    • Social Network
    • Marriage
    • Social Isolation
  • Gender Differences – Tend and Befriend
    • Women seek more
    • Women give more
    • Stronger effects on health for women
social support and health
Social Support and Health
  • The Data
    • Studies in different states and countries support the link
    • Correlational
  • The mechanism
    • Encouragement - Compliance
    • Appraisal coping
    • Buffering hypothesis
just thinking about support helps
Just Thinking About Support Helps
  • For this study, “undergraduates (41 men, 41 women) wrote about supportive ties or casual acquaintances. Supportive ties were rated as warmer and less controlling than acquaintances, and writing about them evoked reductions in negative affect, especially for low-hostile participants," the researchers said.
  • "Compared with the acquaintance condition, the supportive tie condition resulted in reduced heart rate and blood pressure response during a subsequent speech stressor” among low-hostile participants.

Mental activation of supportive ties, hostility, and cardiovascular reactivity to laboratory stress in young men and women. Health Psychology, 2004;23(5):476-485.

mobilizing social support
Mobilizing Social Support
  • Qualities of Effective Social Support
    • Emotional Sharing
    • Cooperation
  • Increasing Social Support
    • Improve Existing Networks
    • Support Groups
global factors influencing coping personal control
Global Factors Influencing Coping: Personal Control
  • Internal vs. External Locus of Control
    • Internal is better
  • Perceived Control
    • Higher is better
  • Langer and Rodin (1976)
    • Nursing home residents
    • Personal control increased physical and mental health status