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Country-level characteristics, organizations and ICT adoption: an in-depth study in the publishing industry. Gianvito Lanzolla & Fernando Suarez Cass Business School & Boston University. Agenda. Research focus Methodology Results Policy implications. Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School.

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Country-level characteristics, organizations and ICT adoption: an in-depth study in the publishing industry

Gianvito Lanzolla & Fernando Suarez

Cass Business School & Boston University

agenda
Agenda
  • Research focus
  • Methodology
  • Results
  • Policy implications

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

research focus
Research focus

To study the relationship between country-level characteristics and ICT adoption within organizations

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

studying ict adoption methodological issues
Studying ICT adoption: methodological issues

ICT adoption =

f(firm-level characteristics, ...., organizational environment)

  • ICT adoption

Defining and capturing ICT adoption

  • Independent variable
    • Firm-level characteristics
    • Organizational environment
  • Functional form & Causality

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

ict adoption
ICT adoption
  • ICT breakdown (What)
    • e.g. in which technologies and for which processes organizations allocate their ICT budget, what organizations adopt
  • ICT adoption process (How)
    • e.g. how organizations implement ICTs, how organization adopt
  • ICT adoption timing (When)
    • e.g. timing in ICTs implementation

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

organizational environment
Organizational environment
  • Firm’s ecosystem – e.g. a firm’s network of business relationships, local environment, etc.
  • Industry characteristics – e.g. service vs. manufacturing industries
  • Country-level characteristics – e.g. institutional form, market structures, general infrastructures, etc.

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

organizational characteristics
Organizational characteristics
  • IT managerial capabilities (Mata et al., 1995; Sambamurthy and Zmud, 1992)
  • IT skills (Katz, 1974; Ross et al., 1996)
  • A firm’s absorptive capacity (Cohen & Levinthal, 1990)
  • Technology readiness (Davis and Bagozzi, 1989)
  • “Complementary workplace organization” and resources (Bresnahan et al., 2002; Clemons and Row 1991)

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

methods
Methods
  • Comparative study across 5 countries
    • UK, US, Italy, China, Brazil
  • In-depth study on a single industry (publishing) based on primary data (survey)
    • cross sectional study
  • Integrative, theory-driven methodology to measure organizational characteristics

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

sample
Sample
  • China
    • 53 returned questionnaires
  • “G8” countries (US, UK and Italy)
    • 30 returned questionnaires
  • Brazil
    • 60 retuned questionnaires!

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

measures
Measures
  • ICT adoption patterns
    • Breakdown by ICT functionalities, Breakdown by ICT technical features, implementation process, adoption timing
  • Country-level characterises
    • GDP/capita
  • Organizational characteristics
    • Age, Size, Organizational Complexity, Organizational Form (state controlled or privately controlled)

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

1 breakdown by ict functionalities
(1) Breakdown by ICT functionalities

Breakdown by ICT functionalities

Secondary Activities

Administrative processes

Procurement

Operations Management

Marketing & Sales

Primary Activities

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

breakdown by ict functionalities results
Breakdown by ICT functionalities: Results
  • Emerging countries allocate proportionally more resources in ICTs to support secondary activities than “G8” countries
  • There is no significant country-level effect in resource allocation in primary activities

(After controlling for organizational level characteristics)

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

2 breakdown by ict technical features
(2) Breakdown by ICT technical features
  • Communication infrastructures
  • Application software
  • Internet oriented software
  • Software maintenance
  • Integrations solutions

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

2 breakdown by ict technical features results
(2) Breakdown by ICT technical features: Results
  • Emerging Countries allocate proportionally more resources in communication infrastructures than “G8” countries
  • No significant country-level differences are found for the other technical features
  • (After controlling for firm level characteristics)

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

ict implementation process
ICT implementation process
  • Learning process that enable the organization to make cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational adjustments that allow new routines to become ongoing practice (Edmondson, Bohmer and Pisano, 2001)
    • Project manager authority
    • ICT project endorsement
    • Reward and motivation system

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

ict implementation process results
ICT implementation process: Results
  • In G8 countries, project managers benefit from higher authority
  • In G8 Countries the level of ICT projects endorsement is higher
  • No statistically significant differences for country level characteristics in team rewards systems

(After controlling for firm level characteristics)

Endorsement

Project manager authority

4 ict adoption timing
(4) ICT adoption timing
  • Centralized computing
  • LAN
  • Web Servers

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

4 ict adoption timing results
(4) ICT adoption timing: Results
  • G8 countries have been earlier adopters of LAN and centralized computing (cc)
  • There seem to be no country-level effect in web server adoption timing
  • (After controlling for firm level characteristics)

LAN

Web

CC

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School

policy implications
Policy implications
  • Country-level characteristics still trigger significant differences in what, how and when organizations adopt ICTs
  • ICT policies may need to be country specific
    • ICT policies are not totally transferable from one country to another,
    • Emerging countries countries need to find their “own” policies.
  • For instance, in “emerging countries”, policies to help firms improve ICT implementation should be considered
    • The implementation process is crucial for the successful use of new technologies

Gianvito Lanzolla Cass Business School