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F Chapter 3 - Energy Changes in motion and position -involves forces leads to changes in energy ENERGY - ability to do work position change, motion change: study, mow lawn, wind mill MECHANICAL WORK - transformation of forces into energy force must move object-displacement

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F

Chapter 3 - Energy

Changes in motion and position

-involves forces

leads to changes in energy

ENERGY - ability to do work

position change, motion change:

study, mow lawn, wind mill

MECHANICAL WORK -

transformation of forces into energy

force must move object-displacement

no force

no movement

} no work

W = Fdd

does

no work

Force in direction of motion

Fd = 1 N

d = 1m

W = Fdd = (1 N)(1 m) = 1 N m (kg m2/s2)

= 1 Joule = 1J


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EXAMPLE : weight lifting

Work to lift a 100 kg barball a distance of 1 m

( @ constant speed)

Lift w/ no a

Fnet = 0 = weight-Fup

Fup=W=mg

in direction of motion

d=h=1m

m = 100 kg

Fup

W

W = Fdd = Fupd = (mg)h =

(100 kg)(10 m/s2)(1 m)

1000 kg m2/s2 = 1000 J

mechanical work

to change the position of the object

Note: no mechanical work done to hold barbell

d=0 when holding still above head


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Another example : car racing

A 1000 kg car goes from 0 to 20 m/s in 5 seconds.

How much work is done (by the engine)?

CONNECTNewton’s 2nd law

F=ma engine accelerates car

ax

to=0

t= 5s

xo=0

x=

vx=20 m/s

vox=0

W = Fdd = Fxd maxd

Work changes the motion of the car

WORK - forces used to give energy

to an object

motional energy

positional energy

chemical, electrical, heat

}

MECHANICAL

ENERGY


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Power - rate at which work is done

how fast work is done

Powerful: can do work fast

Power (P) = (Work-Energy)/time = W/t

J/s = Watt = WSI unit for power

Light bulb: 75 W

How much (work) energy in 1 hour?

P = (W-E)/ t E = W = Pt

HORSEPOWER: compare machines to horses

F=150 lbs English unit hp

v= 2.5 mph 550 ft-lb/s

P = W/ t= (Fdd)/t = Fd (d/ t) = Fdv

1 hp = 1 horsepower = 746 W

Other Power units:

megawatt = MW = 106 W

POWER COMPANIES


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KINETIC ENERGY - energy associated with

the motion of an object

Applied forces cause objects to move - accelerates

motional energy – mass and velocity

velocity influences more

K=1/2 mv2 work increases velocity

Work-Energy Theorem

W = DKE change in kinetic

= 1/2 mv2-1/2 mvo2

Work to bring an object to rest:

W=1/2 mv2just the KE

Car example: W= 200,000 J

W= KE = ½ mv2

What is the velocity?

another way of looking at the problem!


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POTENTIAL ENERGY - energy associated with the position of an object

potential for doing work

drop rock – falls –

gains KE (motional)

Transforms force of gravity into KE of motion

- does work when released

Definition: PE = -W work to achieve

position

Gravitational Potential Energy –

work required to raise the object to a

particular height

PEgrav = Fdd = (mg)h

=mgh like

barbell

h

zero reference – always be consistent in zero height

h= 3m

h=0

h=-2m


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Other types of PE

SPRINGS PE= ½ kx2

change position by compressing

zero – uncompressed

Electrical – work to move charge

Chemical – work to break bond

MECHANICAL ENERGY

Energy associated with the mechanical

work on an object – motional and positional

sum of both

E = KE + PE(grav)

The mechanical energy is conserved

when friction absent

FRICTION – nonconservative

– heats environment

Law of CONSERVATION OF (MECHANICAL) ENERGY

-energy is neither created or destroyed

-assumption: no friction present

E = KE+PE =constantenergies transformed

not lost


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Conservation of energy

E=KE+PE relates motion and position

Einitial = Efinal can solve for position

or motion (v)

EXAMPLE: ROLLER COASTER

A 100 kg rollercoaster moves along the track

shown starting from rest.

For each position marked, find the:

mechanical energy

potential energy

kinetic energy

velocity

vi=0

NO FRICTION

100 m

50 m

30 m

h=0

PE=0


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We will be looking at simpler problems

EXAMPLE: A 1.4 kg PSC book is

dropped out of a 20 m high building.

a) What is the PE at the top?

b) What is the KE at the bottom?

c) What is the velocity of the book at the bottom?

20 m

h=0

PE=0

NOTE: PE at the top is transformed into

KE at the bottom!

E= (KE+PE)top = (KE+PE) bot

PEtop = KEbot

0

0

no energy lost – just transformed


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All Energy Is Conserved!!!

Can work problems with friction and other forces

-leave this for more advanced course, but

if whole system considered

Etot = PEgrav + PEother + KE

GENERALIZED WORK-ENERGY THEOREM

Ef - Ei=Wncwork due to friction

change in

mechanical energy

NOW ALL ENERGY IS CONSERVED – everywhere

the energy goes is taken care of

-heat to environment

-mechanical work

-radiant

-sound

-electrical

-nuclear

-anything else



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  • Work and Energy.

    • Energy is used to do work on an object, exerting a force through a distance.

    • This force is usually against something and there are five main groups of resistance.

      • Work against inertia.

        • Since inertia is an objects resistance to change of motion, it naturally follows that this would resist forces acting upon it.


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  • Work against fundamental forces.

    • Gravitational attraction.

    • Electromagnetic forces.

    • Nuclear forces.

  • Work against friction

    • Friction is always present when two objects are in contact with each other.

    • Friction is always a force in the opposite direction of the applied force.


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  • Work against shape.

    • Work is needed to stretch or compress an object.

    • This is what happens when we work against the shape of a spring.

  • Work against any combination of inertia, fundamental forces, friction, or shape.


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  • Some kind of energy change has taken place, which may include one of the following:

    • Increased kinetic energy.

      • Work against inertia results in energy of motion for an object.

    • Increased potential energy.

      • Work against fundamental forces and work against shape result in an increase in energy of position (potential energy)


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  • Increased temperature. include one of the following:

    • Work against friction always results in an increase in temperature.

  • Increased combination of kinetic energy, potential energy, and/or temperature.


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  • Energy Forms. (five forms). include one of the following:

    • Mechanical energy.

      • Usually associated with the kinetic energy of everyday objects and potential energy that results from the effect of gravity.

Mechanical energy is the energy of motion, or the energy of position, of many familiar objects. This boat has energy of motion.


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  • Chemical energy. include one of the following:

    • Chemical energy is the form of energy associated with chemical reactions.

    • Chemical energy is released during the process known as oxidation.

    • Chemical energy is potential energy that is released when chemical reactions break bonds in molecules.


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Chemical energy is a form of potential energy that is released during a chemical reaction. Both (A) wood and (B) coal have chemical energy that has been stored through the process of photosynthesis. The pile of wood may provide fuel for a small fireplace for several days. The pile of coal might provide fuel for a power plant for a hundred days.


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  • Radiant energy. released during a chemical reaction. Both (A) wood and (B) coal have chemical energy that has been stored through the process of photosynthesis. The pile of wood may provide fuel for a small fireplace for several days. The pile of coal might provide fuel for a power plant for a hundred days.

    • Radiant energy is the form of energy that travels through space.

    • Also called electromagnetic radiation.

    • Visible light is one small part of the electromagnetic radiation.

    • Largest form of energy Earth receives


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The electromagnetic spectrum includes many forms of radiant energy. Note that visible light occupies only a tiny part of the entire spectrum.


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  • Electrical energy. energy. Note that visible light occupies only a tiny part of the entire spectrum.

    • Electrical energy is a form of energy that comes from electromagnetic interactions.

    • Electrical energy that travels through the wires in our homes to light or houses is a familiar form of electrical energy.


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The blades of a steam turbine. In a power plant, chemical or nuclear energy is used to heat water to steam, which is directed against the turbine blades. The mechanical energy of the turbine turns an electric generator. Thus a power plant converts chemical or nuclear energy to mechanical energy, which is then converted to electrical energy.


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  • Nuclear energy. nuclear energy is used to heat water to steam, which is directed against the turbine blades. The mechanical energy of the turbine turns an electric generator. Thus a power plant converts chemical or nuclear energy to mechanical energy, which is then converted to electrical energy.

    • this is the form of energy generated in nuclear power plants.

    • Fission-split heavy nucleus

    • Fusion-combine light nucleus

    • E=mc2


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  • Energy Conversion. nuclear energy is used to heat water to steam, which is directed against the turbine blades. The mechanical energy of the turbine turns an electric generator. Thus a power plant converts chemical or nuclear energy to mechanical energy, which is then converted to electrical energy.

    • Energy can be converted from one form to another.

    • For example, during a fall PE lost = KE gained

    • mgh = 1/2mv2

    • Solving for vf

    • vf = 2gh

    • This allows you to calculate the final velocity of a falling object after its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy.


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This pendulum bob loses potential energy (PE) and gains an equal amount of kinetic energy (KE) as it falls through as distance h. The process reverses as the bob moves up the other side of its swing.


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The energy forms and some equal amount of kinetic energy (KE) as it falls through as distance h. The process reverses as the bob moves up the other side of its swing.conversion pathways.


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  • Energy Conservation equal amount of kinetic energy (KE) as it falls through as distance h. The process reverses as the bob moves up the other side of its swing..

    • Any form of energy can be converted into another form.

    • The total amount of energy remains constant.

    • Law of Conservation of Energy:

      • Energy is never created or destroyed. Energy can be converted from one form to another, but the total energy remains constant.


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  • Energy Sources Today. equal amount of kinetic energy (KE) as it falls through as distance h. The process reverses as the bob moves up the other side of its swing.


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  • Petroleum equal amount of kinetic energy (KE) as it falls through as distance h. The process reverses as the bob moves up the other side of its swing.is our most widely used source of energy.

    • Petroleum provides about 40 percent of the energy used by the US.

  • Natural gasprovides about 20 percent of our energy needs.

  • Coalprovides about 25 percent of our energy needs.

  • Alternative energies (solar, wind, geothermal) provide less than 2 percent of the total.


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A the sources of energy and b the uses of energy during the 1990s l.jpg
(A) The sources of energy and sources:(B) the uses of energy during the 1990s.


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  • Petroleum sources:.

    • Petroleum is oil that comes from oil bearing rocks.

    • Petroleum and natural gas come from organic sediments, material that have settled out of water.

    • Most of the organic material comes from plankton. The process of converting organisms into petroleum and natural gas takes millions of years.

    • Natural gas forms under higher temperatures than petroleum.


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  • Coal sources:.

    • Coal forms from an accumulation of plant materials that collected millions of years ago.

    • Carbon rich decayed plant material is called peat.

    • Pressure, compaction, and heating are brought about by movement of the Earth's crust eventually change the water content and release the carbon in the materials, it has now begun the process toward coal formation.


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  • Coal is ranked according to how long it took to form and how hard it is.

    • Lignite is the lowest ranked and is softest, took the least time to form, and burns quickest so contains the least amount of usable energy.

    • Bituminous is the next highest raking.

    • Anthracite is the hardest and took the longest to form and so contains the most usable energy.

    • Softer coal also has more impurities which contribute to increased pollution levels.


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  • Water Power hard it is..

    • Moving wateris a source of renewable energy that has been used for thousands of years.

    • At present in the US we have built about all of the hydropower plants that we can as we have no usable sources of moving water left.


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  • Nuclear Power hard it is..

    • Nuclear power plants use the energy that is release from the splitting of uranium atoms and plutonium atoms to produce electrical energy.