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Chapter 10

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Chapter 10

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  1. Chapter 10 A Changing Nation

  2. Section 1: Building a National Identity • The Era of Good Feelings • Republicans took control of government after the war of 1812 • Madison beat Rufus King 183 to 34 • Madison wanted to promote national unity • Toured much of the North and middle areas • He was well received in all areas • A Boston writer commented on his time as president as the era of good feelings • Nobody ran against him in the election of 1820 • Building the National Economy • Americans wanted the government to take a more active role in economics • This was a change from a focus on states rights to federal intervention

  3. Section 1: Building a National Identity • Support for the idea came from 3 influential people • Henry Clay – Kentucky • Spoke in the west • People needed better roads and canals to transport goods • John Calhoun • Spoke for southerners • Defended states rights • Daniel Webster • Spoke for the NE area • Came to support protective tariffs • 2nd Bank of the U.S. • Established in 1816 by congress • Privately owned – had a charter from the U.S. Government • Could operate for 20 years • Lent money to individuals • Controlled the money supply

  4. Section 1: Building a National Identity • Tariff of 1816 • Passed for protection of American industry • Britain had well established factories • They were able to produce goods much cheaper than the U.S. • This allowed them to fill the market and drive U.S. manufacturers out of business • Protective tariff was popular in the North • This is where the most manufacturing was • Very unpopular in the South • Made southerners pay more for goods • Calhoun – tariffs made northern manufacturers rich at the expense of the south

  5. Section 1: Building a National Identity • Clay’s American System • Proposed high tariffs and a federal program of public works • Believed that high tariffs helped all areas of the country • Wealth of manufacturers from tariffs would allow them purchase more products from western and southern farmers • The Tariff would provide revenue for the Government • Which could put the money to good use like… • Build up the infrastructure • Roads, bridges, canals in the south and the west • Clay’s plan was never fully implemented • Both Madison and Monroe refused to support some of the projects • Southerners were convinced that Tariffs would not help the south in the long run

  6. Section 1: Building a National Identity • Three important Supreme Court Rulings • McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) • Court protected the 2nd bank of the U.S. • Maryland tried to tax the bank – the bank refused to pay • The decision strengthened the federal government • States have no power to interfere with federal institutions • No state can pass any law that violates a federal one • Strengthened the power of the Federal Government • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) • Court promoted capitalism • System in which privately owned businesses compete in a free market • Decision said that the charter for Dartmouth College was a private contract • state could not interfere with the that contract • Strengthened the economy – Capitalism – Free Market

  7. Section 1: Building a National Identity • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) • Supported Federal power • Ruled that NY could not give a steamboat company a monopoly to carry passengers on the Hudson River • Court said that the boat includes stops in NJ as well • This means it is INTERSTATE commerce • Trade between more than 1 state – and is regulated by Congress • The decision strengthened the Federal Government • All three decisions increased the power of the Federal Government at the expense of the states

  8. Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations • Relations with Spain • Spain’s power had weakened over time • Wars with England and maintaining uprisings in colonies • Escaped slaves often fled from the U.S. into Spanish Florida • Joined with the Seminoles • Went on raids to American settlements • 1817 U.S. sends in Old Hickory • He attacked and destroyed 2 Seminole villages • He then went far beyond his orders • Attacked and seized 2 Spanish towns • Forced the governor to flee • Spain realizes that they can no longer hold onto Florida • U.S. could take it at any time • They sign the Adams-Onis treaty in 1819 which ceded Florida

  9. Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations • Spanish Colonies Win Independence • Mexico breaks away • 1818 – Fr. Miguel Hidalgo organized an army of Native Americans • They freed several provinces in Mexico • Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811 • 1820 – a second revolution breaks out • Spain was unable to end the fighting • They signed a treaty in 1821 giving Mexico independence • Mexico’s Governments • At first it Mexico was ruled by an emperor • In 1823 that changed to a constitutional government like America

  10. Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations • Independence for South and Central America • 1819 – Simon Bolivar led a rebellion • Marched troops through Venezuela into Columbia defeating the Spanish • Became president of the independent republic of Columbia • Included Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador and Panama • 1821 – Central America declares independence • Spain was unable to resist • They formed the United Provinces of Central America • Included Nicaragua, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala • 1822 – Brazil declares Independence from Portugal • The U.S. formally recognized the independence of these countries • By 1825 most of Latin America was free of European control

  11. Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations • The Monroe Doctrine • The U.S. would not allow European nations to create new colonies or interfere with Latin America • Very important foreign policy • Russia and France talked of helping Spain regain its colonies • This would be damaging to U.S. trade in the area • Would harm British trade as well • England had suggested a ‘joint’ statement • J.Q. Adams suggested that the U.S. make the statement alone • Monroe agrees • This was the beginning of the special friendship that we share with England • U.S. was not strong enough to block European interference • The British Navy was • U.S. Foreign Policy was being enforced by England

  12. Section 2: Dealing With Other Nations • Relations with Canada • Canada was still a British colony • Relations were tense with U.S. because of failed invasions during war of 1812 • The English learned a lesson from America • If they wanted to keep Canada, they would have to give Canadians self government • Relations improved between Canada and the U.S. • Border disputes were settled peacefully • Eventually we established excellent relations

  13. Section 3: The Age of Jackson • Election of 1824 • First time Andrew Jackson ran for President • He ran against J.Q. Adams, Henry Clay, and William Crawford • And the winner was…. • Andrew Jackson won the popular vote • Andrew Jackson had more electoral votes • But he did not have a majority of the electoral votes • House of Reps. had to decide between Adams and Jackson • Speaker of the house – Henry Clay • He had great influence • Told his supporters to vote for Adams • They did – Adams becomes president

  14. Section 3: The Age of Jackson • Jackson’s Reaction • Jackson and his followers were furious • They claimed the 2 men had made a ‘corrupt bargain’ • Clay was named Adams’ secretary of state…. • Presidency of J.Q. Adams • Adams accomplished little in 4 years • Stigma of the corrupt bargain • Not politically savvy • Attempted to get a national program running • Build roads and canals • A high tariff on imports • “Clay’s American Plan” • He never won the trust of the people though • As a result, he served only one term

  15. Section 3: The Age of Jackson • A New Era in Politics • More people were able to vote • Most states had dropped the property requirement • If you were a white male, you could vote and hold office • Democracy in the Age of Jackson • Jackson believed that rich and poor alike should be a part of government • He opposed special privileges for the wealthy • He did not trust government • He was also very suspicious of banks – which he believed favored the rich

  16. Section 3: The Age of Jackson • New Political Parties • National Republicans (Adams) and Democrats (Jackson) • NR party formed in 1828 • Died shortly after • Whigs formed in 1836 – they were anti-jackson • Whigs and Democrats were the two parties until 1852 • New ways of doing things • Presidential candidates had been chosen by a Caucus • Meeting of members of a political party • Now they were chosen by Nominating Conventions • Large meetings of party delegates to choose candidates • Opened the process to many more people • Made things more democratic

  17. Section 3: The Age of Jackson • Jackson becomes President • 3x as many people voted in 1828 than in 1824 • Jackson won the presidency easily • The election did show some sectionalism forming • Voters in different parts of the country were more likely to vote for one candidate than another • Jackson’s Inauguration • Jackson’s was a victory for the ‘common man’ • His inauguration showed this plainly • 20,000+ people attended from all walks of life • Many did not behave well • More like a huge party than a regal event • Critics dubbed Jackson's election as the ‘reign of king mob’

  18. Section 3: The Age of Jackson • The Spoils System • To the victor belongs the spoils • Spoils system is the practice of rewarding government jobs to loyal supporters • Jackson was no different than any other president • All of them had replaced some government officials • Jackson only replaced 20% • Difference was that Jackson openly defended his decisions • He claimed putting new people into these jobs furthered democracy

  19. Section 4: Indian Removal • Native Americans of the Southeast • 100,000 lived in the SE when Jackson became president • Choctaw, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Creek • Many lived in towns or were farmers • The Cherokee • Had adopted white customs • Farmed, ran businesses • Had their own schools • Some converted to Christianity • Had a written alphabet • Established a government based on a written constitution • They had a newspaper published in both English and Cherokee

  20. Section 4: Indian Removal • Conflict over Land • Forced Movement • This began under Jefferson • Treaties • Signed after the war of 1812 – NW native Americans moved west of the Mississippi • Pressure grew on SE Natives • Monroe tried to get them to move • White southerners demanded that they be moved by force • Georgia passed a law forcing the Creek to give up most of their land • 1828 they did the same with the Cherokee • The Cherokee fought back… but not how you might think

  21. Section 4: Indian Removal • Support for Native Americans • The Cherokee challenged Georgia in court! • Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831) • Court refused to stop Georgia from enforcing its law • Worcester v. Georgia (1832) • The Supreme court declared that Georgia’s laws could have no force within Cherokee territory • Chief Justice John Marshall • Delivered the majority opinion of the court • Said that the U.S. had signed treaties with the Cherokee • Treaties were made by the federal government • Therefore they are supreme to state passed laws • Jackson was furious • He has made his decision, now let him enforce it • Plans were already underway from the Indian Removal Act (federal law)

  22. Section 4: Indian Removal • The Trail of Tears • Removal of the Choctaws • Under the IRA of 1830 – the government gave lands west of the Mississippi for their lands east of the Mississippi • Choctaws signed first • They moved west guarded by soldiers from 1831-33 • They were not given enough supplies for the journey • An army officer noted that • One group walked 24 hours barefoot though the snow and ice before reaching shelter • Removal of the Cherokee • They held out longer, but were forced out in 1838 by Van Buren • Similar conditions • Guarded by thousands of soldiers, they marched hundreds of miles • 15,000 began the journey - @11,000 arrived

  23. Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy • The Bank War • Pros • Bank made loans to businesses • Safe place for government’s money • Paper currency it issued was stable • Careful policies created confidence in other banks • Cons • Limited the money state banks could lend • Some thought the bank only benefited the wealthy • Jackson vs. The Monster • Bank’s worst enemy was Jackson • He especially disliked the bank’s president – Nicholas Biddle • Believed Biddle used his position to do favors for other rich people

  24. Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy • The bank fight increased the power of the President • Biddle got congress to renew the bank’s charter in 1832 • He thought that so many people would support the bank, that Jackson would be afraid to veto the bill • He was wrong • Jackson vetoed the bank • He won re-election in 1832 by a huge margin • Defeating Henry Clay (a bank supporter – who helped Biddle get the charter approved in congress) • The bank veto showed that a president could get people involved and not bend to the will of congress

  25. Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy • The Question of States Rights • People had long debated where the balance of power should be • More to states or more to federal government • Alien and Sedition Acts • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • Hartford Conventions • All had raised this question • Nullification Crisis • Began in 1828 with a tariff on Iron, Textiles and other products • The tariff helped manufacturers in the North and West • But it harmed southerners (they had to pay more for goods) • Vice President John C. Calhoun argued that states had the right of nullification

  26. Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy • Arguments for Nullification • If the government could enforce an ‘unjust’ law, could it also end slavery? • Calhoun thought the following • The Union was formed by an agreement amongst the states • Each state kept certain powers to itself • One of these powers was to nullify unjust laws • Arguments against Nullification • Daniel Webster summarized it nicely • We are all agents of the same supreme power, the people • Idea was that the U.S. had not been formed by the states, but by the people within those states • President vs. Vice President • Jackson – “Our Federal Union – It must be preserved” • Calhoun – “The Union – next to our liberty – the most dear”

  27. Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy • South Carolina Threatens to Secede • Tariff of 1832 • Lowered some tariffs, but again raised the one on iron and textiles • SC called a state convention • They voted to nullify the 1828 & 1832 tariffs • They ‘did not apply to SC’ • The state warned the federal government not to use force to impose the tariffs or SC would leave the union • Jackson is Furious… (he gets that way a lot) • He said.. • The union cannot be dissolved • Any attempt to do so was treason

  28. Section 5: States’ Rights and the Economy • Jackson goes to Congress • He asks for 2 bills • 1 – to lower the 1828 and 1832 tariffs • 2 – to use force to collect them from SC • Congress passes both laws • SC backs down • They could not get other states to follow their lead • Didn’t want to stand against the U.S. alone • The crisis had been settled peacefully…. For now.