Reproductive Health Care for Women: Coverage, Access, and Financing. Usha R. Ranji, M.S. Principal Policy Analyst Kaiser Family Foundation KaiserEDU.org Tutorial December 2008. Figure 2. Prevention. Contraception Screenings Pap tests Breast exams Sexually transmitted infections.
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Usha R. Ranji, M.S.
Principal Policy Analyst
Kaiser Family Foundation
Figure 2 FinancingPrevention
Figure 3 Financing
Allow women to prevent unintended pregnancies as well as plan and space their childbearing
Typical U.S. woman who wants only 2 children must use contraceptives for roughly 3 decades
62% of women aged 15–44 currently use a contraceptive
Most (64%) using reversible methods, such as oral contraceptives or condoms, but some differences between age and racial groups
Figure 4 FinancingEmergency Contraception
Figure 5 Financing
State Mandates for
Contraceptive Coverage, 2008
Comprehensive mandate (8 states)
Limited mandate* (19 states)
None (23 states + DC)
*Allows religious or ethical exemptions to the mandate.
Source: Alan Guttmacher Institute, State Policies in Brief, May 2008.
Figure 6 FinancingMedicaid and Family Planning
Sources of Public Funding for Family Planning, 2006
Total= $1.8 Billion
Note: Federal Grants includes Title X (11.7%), MCH Block Grant (2.1%), TANF and Social Service Block Grant (2.6%). Source: Sonfield, A. and Gold, R.B., Public Funding for Family Planning, Sterilization and Abortion Services, FY 1980–2006, AGI, 2008.
Figure 7 FinancingTitle X Program
Annual Title X Appropriation Levels ($ millions)
Sources: AGI, Fulfilling the Promise, 2000; NFPRHA, Title X Factsheet.
Figure 8 FinancingSexually Transmitted Infections
Source: Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections and Bacterial Vaginosis among Female Adolescents in the United States: Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004
Figure 9 Financing
Women and HIV/AIDSWomen as a Proportion of Newly Reported AIDS Cases, 1985-2006
Note: Includes reported cases among women 13 years of age and older.
Source: CDC, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Reports, Vol. 18. 2008.
Figure 10 Financing
Live births per 1,000 women ages 15 to 19:
Sources: CDC National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007. Hamilton BE, Martin JA & Ventura SJ. Births: Preliminary data for 2006. CDC National Vital Statistics Reports, 56(7). 2007.; Martin JA, Hamilton BE et al. Births: Final data for 2005. CDC National Vital Statistics Reports, 56(6). 2007.
Figure 11 FinancingPregnancyandMaternityCare
Figure 12 FinancingPregnancy and Childbirth
Distribution of hospital stays for women, 18-44, 2000
Source: Estimates based on AHRQ, Care of Women in U.S. Hospitals, 2000: HCUP Fact Book No. 3, September 2002.
Figure 13 Financing
Figure 3Paying for Maternity Care
Average expenditures for maternity care, 2004
Source: March of Dimes, Cost of Maternity and Infant Care, 2007.
Figure 14 FinancingTrends in Abortion
Abortion Rates Among Women, Ages 15-44, 1980-2005
Abortions per 1,000 women
Source: Jones RK, et al. 2008. Abortion in the United States: Incidence and Access to Services, 2005, Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health.
Figure 15 FinancingAccess and Financing Abortion Services
Figure 16 FinancingInfertility Services
Number (in thousands) of ART Cycles at Reporting Clinics, 1996-2005
Source: CDC, 2005 Assisted Reproductive Technology Report.
Figure 17 FinancingConclusions
Figure 18 FinancingRelated Resources