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How to construct an evolutionary tree: Simplest way: the principle of parsimony Find the shortest number of evolutionary steps to explain the differences between species. Example: an evolutionary tree for mammals Here is an unparsimonious evolutionary tree:

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

How to construct an evolutionary tree:

Simplest way: the principle of parsimony

Find the shortest number of evolutionary steps

to explain the differences between species.

slide3

Example: an evolutionary tree for mammals

Here is an unparsimonious evolutionary tree:

Chicken Bat Platypus Cat Kangaroo

lays eggs live birth, lays eggs live birth, live birth

placenta placenta

slide4

Example: an evolutionary tree for mammals

Here is a parsimonious evolutionary tree:

Chicken Platypus Kangaroo Bat Cat

lays eggs lays eggs live birth live birth live birth

placenta placenta

slide5

We can use an outgroup to decide which traits are

ancestral and which are derived.

Chicken Platypus Kangaroo Bat Cat

lays eggs lays eggs live birth live birth live birth

placenta placenta

slide6

You can figure out how to build the tree by finding

shared derived characteristics.

Chicken Platypus Kangaroo Bat Cat

lays eggs lays eggs live birth live birth live birth

placenta placenta

slide8

Look for shared derived characteristics

Foot pads

Feathery antennae

slide9

Look for shared derived characteristics

Long proboscis

(mouth parts)

slide15

broken stripes

on abdomen

long proboscis

foot pads

feathery

antennae

apricot

eyes

5th bristle

slide16

Same thing, but with DNA:

ACTAAGT ACTAAGT ACGAAGT ACGTCGT AGGTCGT ACGTACT ACGTACG

slide17

#6 C to G

#4 T to A

#3 G to T

#5 A to C

#1 A to C

#2 C to G

CCTAAGT ACTAAGT ACGAAGT ACGTCGT AGGTCGT ACGTACT ACGTACG

slide19

erecta T G T C A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster T G C C T C A T T G T C C T G A G C T A

orena T G T C A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans T G C C T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri T A C C A C G T A G T C A T G A G T T A

yakuba T G C C A C G T A G C C A T G A G T T A

ananassae T G C C T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

(outgroup)

green is ancestral

slide20

erecta TG T C A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TG C C T C A T T G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TG T C A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TG C C T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TA C C A C G T A G T C A T G A G T T A

yakuba TG C C A C G T A G C C A T G A G T T A

ananassae TG C C T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

(outgroup)

green is ancestral, red is derived

slide21

erecta TGT C A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGC C T C A T T G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGT C A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGC C T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TAC C A C G T A G T C A T G A G T T A

yakuba TGC C A C G T A G C C A T G A G T T A

ananassae TGC C T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

(outgroup)

green is ancestral, red is derived

slide22

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

(outgroup)

green is ancestral, red is derived

slide23

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

slide24

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakuba simulans melanogaster

slide25

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakuba simulans melanogaster

slide26

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakuba simulans melanogaster

slide27

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakuba simulans melanogaster

slide28

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans

slide29

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans

slide30

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans

slide31

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans

slide32

erecta TGTC A C A T A G T A A T G A G C T G

melanogaster TGCC T C A TT G T C C T G A G C T A

orena TGTC A C A G A G T C A T G A G C T G

simulans TGCC T C A T A G T C C T C A G C T A

teissieri TACC A C GT A G T C A T G A GT T A

yakuba TGCC A C GT A G C C A T G A GT T A

ananassae TGCC T C A A A G T C A T G A C C T A

ananassae erecta orena teissieri yakubamelanogaster simulans