Greek AmericansNow Heather Sandefur Brianne Sandefur Jataya Randall Stacy Reh Julian Taylor Holly Ostrom Roxane Thogmartin
Study Guide • Under whose rule were Greeks forbidden to attend schools? • When was the school expansion program adopted? • In what language is schooling conducted in a Greek School? • Why do most Greek American Families send their children to Greek Schools?
Greek School • There is a myth in Greece that under Turkish rule, schooling was forbidden so many individuals attended “hidden” or “secret” schools that operated mostly at night in churches taught by a priest or monk • An artist by the name of Nikolaos Ghyzis painted a picture entitled “Hidden School” that showed a priest teaching a small group of children by candlelight which gave some evidence to the myth of the “hidden” schools • A school expansion program was adopted in the mid 1900s that decreased the percent of individuals 15 years or older that couldn’t read and write from 25% to 16% • In Greece today, laws require that children attend school from the ages of 6 to 11 • Today in America, Greek Schools are common in areas where there is a large number of Greek Americans which is becoming more popular everyday in Florida with a population of 21,000 in nearby Tarpon Springs, a tourist community settled by Greek sponge divers
Greek School • These schools teach children, Greek or not, the skills to excel in the Greek language as well as the world • Although most Greek Schools focus on the teaching of the Greek language and the history of Greece, the schools also teach basic skills used in any Elementary Schools with the first half of the day taught in Greek and the second half taught in English • Greek American Families that have their children attend Greek Schools want their children to learn their cultural background and the history of where their families came from • Greek School is also a popular idea among non-Greek families according to the Athenian Academy who stated that “only 20% of last years enrollment were children of Greek backgrounds” • Non-Greek families are sending their children to these Greek immersion schools so that they can learn a second language and become educated in a culture other then their own • Today more than 12 million people around the world speak Greek including individuals in Cyprus, Italy, Albania, Turkey, and the United States
Study Guide • What celebration has been seen as a Western influence? • Why do Greek Americans celebrate Independence Day? • What is said if your egg is not broken?
Festivals for Children • Name Day • Celebrated instead of their birthdays • Seen as a Western influence • Celebrated on feast day after whom a person is named at baptism • Choosing children’s names is dictated by family traditions • Children stay at home and are thrown parties on their name day • Independence Day • Celebrated on March 25th in remembrance of the 1812 revolt against the Ottoman empire • Children dress up and one lucky child is chosen to lead a parade through the streets • National holiday celebrated with parades and dances nationwide
Festivals for Children • The Patrai Carnival • Originated in a city called Patrai • Special game played at the beginning for children called Hidden Treasure Hunt • All types of activities are held for children • King Carnival takes place afterwards where children dress up in costumes • Clean Monday • Symbol of release where children fly kites atop a hill • Marks the end of the carnival season and the beginning of Lent leading to Easter • Easter has a special tradition with a red dyed egg. If your egg is not broken then you will have a lucky year.
Study Guide • What are the 3 main types of current Greek-American children’s literature? • What does “Triptych” mean? • Which type of Greek-American children’s literature is more so based on Greek mythology? • When did Greek-American children’s literature begin to surface?
Brief History of Greek-American Children’s Literature Most Greek children’s literature didn’t begin to surface until the end of the 19th century. The only books available for Greek children to read before that were Aesop’s fables, Greek poetry, and historical books. Main characteristics of Greek children's literature such as etho-didacticism, rationalism and the projection of the triptych which means, "Fatherland, religion, family" were the main genre of children’s books well into the beginning of the 20th Century.
Most Common Types • Greek Folktales • Fictional Greek American Tales • Greek-American Educational Books
Greek Folktales • Culture Oriented • Usually teach a lesson or moral • Traditional plots and storylines • Similar to Fairytales in some cases * Example literature: Mr. Semolina-Semolinus by Anthony Manna and Christodoula Mitakidou Fictional Greek American Tales • More historically based • Greek Mythology intertwined • Makes learning Greek Mythology fun for children • Culture Oriented * Example literature: It’s all Greek toMe by Jon Scieszka and My Mother’s Daughters by Doris Orgell
There are also educational Greek-American children’s books as well that teach things such as. • Greek Alphabet • Greek Numerals • Greek Traditions
Study Guide • When being baptized you receive the Holy Spirit through what sacrament? • What are the two parts to Holy Unction? • When taking Holy Communion you are identifying yourself with… • Do children get all the same rights and responsibilities as adults in the Orthodox Church? • What do children learn in the classes that they take?
Greek Children and their Religion • Children are baptized as infants into the faith • At baptism they receive the Gift of the Holy Spirit through the sacrament of Chrismation • This means when each person is given the “seal of the gift of the Holy Spirit” of god in chrismation to be a “Christ,” I.e. an anointed son of God to live the life of Christ • These are the first two sacraments that all the Orthodox faithful receive in their lives • Children enjoy all the same rights, responsibilities and privileges as adults • No difference between children and adults as members
Greek Children and their Religion • They receive the Sacraments of Holy Communion, Holy Unction and even Holy Confession • Confession is more of an exercise in understanding the power of forgiveness • In Holy Unction the Spirit anoints the sufferer to suffer and die and Christ and so to be healed and make alive with the Father for eternity • The service of Holy Unction has two parts. The first is, the prayer or hymns for the health and asking the Saints also to intercede and the blessing of the oil. The second part is 7 epistels, 7 gospels, petition where the names for health is read and 7 prayers for health and remission of sins • To participate in the Holy Communion in the Orhtodox Church is to identify oneself fully with all of the members of the Othodox faith, living and dead; and to identify oneself fully with every aspect of the Othodox Church; its history, councils, canons, dogmas, and disciplines • Children do not attend classes. They learn about the history of the faith, the Othodox Church and its traditions, the Sacraments, and the Biblical Tradition
St. Sophia Greek Orthodox Cathedral • For 2004-2005, the theme for the St. Sophia Sunday School will be “Living Our Orthodox Faith.” • They will be impressing on children the importance of not only believeing in God and having a strong prayer life, but also acting on one’s faith • Children also learn the concept of “living the Liturgy after the Liturgy,” that is, bringing the peace, ope, joy, and love of our Divine Liturgy into the homes, and into the social lives
Study Guide • When does a child’s first rite of passage begin? • Where does the first born middle name usually come from? • What is a foustanella?
Gender Roles • Names • A child’s first rite of passage, for both male and female, begins with he/she recieves their religious and regional name for baptism • Boys-first born takes the name of his grandfather from his father’s side • Girls-first born takes the name of her grandmother from the mother’s side • Middel name, regardless of gender, is usually the fathers first name • Family • Boys-raised to be the “bread winner” of the family • Girls-focus is on family and marriage
Gender Roles con’t • Tradition • Weddings-collection of dowry begins when girls are toddlers • Girls take candy from the “stephana” tray and keep it under their pillow for three nights. On the third night they will dream of the man that they will marry • Bride writes the name of single girls on the bottom of her shoe and the first name to get erased is the next in line to get married • Festive Clothing • Boys-A pleaded white skirt known as a foustanella (foos-tah-NEL-lah) with a white skirt, a dark blue embroider jacket, white stockings, and red shoes with pompoms on the top • Girls-embroider vests with colorful skirts and scarf’s, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets. The scarf is worn on the head and adds character to the costume
Study Guide • What is the game that is like telephone? • What are the names of the games that require a ball? • What is the English name for Ta Mila?
Child’s Play • The Little Soldier • The Bee • The Little Helen • Battle with Toy Soldiers (Mahi me stratiotakia) • Prison (similar to freeze tag) • Berlina (similar to telephone)
Ball Games • Apples (Ta Mila) • Lice • Flees
Common Games • Hide and Seek • Marbles • Hopscotch • Jackstones (Jacks) • Kickball
Study Guide • What is the most important value in Greek culture that is instilled in children? • Why is it important for men and women to consider family size? • What is the basic source for children’s learned behavior?
Family Life • Work family arrangements to traditional views – Favoring mother at home with children (if able to) • Many employed people (mainly women) whose spouse is also employed, seriously consider working less in order to enhance or restore life satisfaction • A woman can not choose to have many children (high family involvement), and at the same time, work full time (high work involvement)
Family Life con’t • Women and men clearly consider family size as a relevant factor in judging anticipated satisfaction with life • Presence of children in the family has a potential to increase as well as decrease life satisfaction • Among men, the highest anticipated life satisfaction corresponds to having one child • Among women, the highest anticipated life satisfaction corresponds to having two children • Large families are decreasing
Values and Morals • American Greeks consider the values of the “in-group” (composed of members of the extended family and friends who demonstrate concern and support) to be dominant • Greeks spend relatively greats amounts of time engaged in activities with nuclear and extended family members, feel closer to them, and more often live in the proximity of their families • Parents are a basic source for children to learn behaviors • Social learning occurs through everyday interaction with individuals and events • Most important value to instill in children is respect for the elderly. “Respecting the older people who are around you”
Values con’t Most important values instilled in children • Respect for the elderly • Honesty and Responsibility • Proper behavior and Habits • Obedience • Patriotism • Religion and Spirituality • The will to succeed is deeply ingrained in children at a very early age • A requisite in life is to learn how to assume responsibility also at an early age
Study Guide • Under whose rule were Greeks forbidden to attend schools? • When was the school expansion program adopted? • In what language is schooling conducted in a Greek School? • Why do most Greek American Families send their children to Greek Schools? • What celebration has been seen as a Western influence? • Why do Greek Americans celebrate Independence Day? • What is said if your egg is not broken? • What are the 3 main types of current Greek-American children’s literature? • What does “Triptych” mean? • Which type of Greek-American children’s literature is more so based on Greek mythology? • When did Greek-American children’s literature begin to surface? • When being baptized you receive the Holy Spirit through what sacrament? • What are the two parts to Holy Unction?
Study Guide • When taking Holy Communion you are identifying yourself with… • Do children get all the same rights and responsibilities as adults in the Orthodox Church? • What do children learn in the classes that they take? • When does a child’s first rite of passage begin? • Where does the first born middle name usually come from? • What is a foustanella? • What is the game that is like telephone? • What are the names of the games that require a ball? • What is the English name for Ta Mila? • What is the most important value in Greek culture that is instilled in children? • Why is it important for men and women to consider family size? • What is the basic source for children’s learned behavior?
Bibliography Greek School- Heather Sandefur • Koliopoulos, John S. and Veremis, Thanos M. Greece: The Modern Sequel. New York: New York University Press, 2002. • Reinhold, Meyer. Classica Americana: The Greek and Roman Heritage in the United States. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1984. • Odijk, Pamela. The Ancient World: The Greeks. New Jersey: Silver Burdett Press, 1989. • Greece. World Book Encyclopedia. 1990 Edition 8G. World Book Inc. pages 376-389 • http://athenianacademy.org/ • http://web.naplesnews.com/03/10/florida/e36664a.htm • http://stharalambos.il.goarch.org/greek_school_GSL.htm#History Festivals for Children- Brianne Sandefur • De Jongh, Brian. The Companion Guide toGreece. Companion Guide. New Edition. 2000 • Dubios, Jill. Cultures of the World. Marshall Cavendish. New York. 2003 • Gordon, Sharon. Discovering Cultures Greece. Benchmark Books. New York. 2004 • Veremis, Thanos M., and Dradoumis, Mark. Historical dictionary of Greece. Scarecrow.1995 • Woodhouse, C.M. Modern Greece: A Short History. 5th ed., revised. London. Faber and Faber. 1991 • http://www.humanities.uci.edu/classics/MGSA/links.html • www.greeknewsonline.com
Bibliography Children’s Literature- Jataya Randall • Greek Children’s Literature Page. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from http://www.angelfire.com/pe/GrChildLit • Manna, A. L. & Mitakiodu, C. (1997). Mr. Semolina-Semolinus: A Greek Folktale. New York: Atheneum Books for Young Readers. • Orgel, D. (2003). My mother’s daughter: Four Greek Goddesses Speak.Brookfield, CT: Roaring Brook Press. • Scieszka, J. (1999). It’s all Greek to me. New York: The Penguin Group. • Taking a Stroll Through Time within the Realm of Greek Children’s Literature. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from http://www.angelfire.com/pe/GrChildLit/TimeStroll.html Greek Children and their Religion- Stacy Reh • Kollias, Doris. email@example.com. February 22, 2005 • Sacraments. www.oca.org/pages/orth_chri/Orthodox-Faith/Doctrine/sacraments.html. February 27, 2005. • Sacrament of Chrismation. http://home.it.net.au/~jgrapsas/pagese/chrism.htm March 1, 2005. • St. Sophia Sunday School Program “Living our Orthodox Faith.” www.stsophia.org/display. February 27, 2005 • The Holy Trinity in the Sacraments. www.oca.org/pages/orth_chri/Orthodox-Faith/Doctrine/Holy-Trinity. February 27, 2005. • The Sacrament of Holy Unction. www.stgeorgepiscataway.org/holyunction.html March 1, 2005
Bibliography Gender Roles- Julian Taylor • Customs and Traditions. 1993. <http://chnm.gmu.edu/greekam/customs.html>. • DuBois, Jill. Cultures of the world: Greece. Tarrytown, NY. 1992. • Greek American Mall. <http://www.greekamericanmall.com/TraditionsEng.htm>. 2005. • The Greek Modern family. <http://web.cocc.edu/hum299/colleen/greek/greek_mod…>. • Kapsalis, Grances. Threads of Life: The Greek Woman’s Labors of Love. Hellenic Museum and Cultral Center. 2003. <http://www.hellenicmuseum.org/exhibit>. • Haas, Gary. Christmas in Greece. 1996-2004. <http:// www.gogreece.com/learn/christmas.htm>. Child’s Play-Holly Ostrom • DuBois, Jill. Cultures of the World: Greece. New York: Times Media Private Limited, 1992. • “Center for Modern Greek Studies.” 2 Feb. 2005. http://www.sfsu.edu/~modgreek/welcome.html • “Childhood, Toys and Games.” 28 Feb. 2005. The Benaki Museum. <http://www.benaki.gr/collections/childhood/en/main.asp> • “ Children’s Folk Game Project Greek Traditional Games.” 1 Feb. 2005 http://est.estcomp.ro/~cfg?greekhome.html • “Greek American Mall.” 1 Feb. 2005. <www.greekamericanmall.com> • “Spotlight on – The Greek Museum, The Center for Greek-American Heritage.” 16 Feb. 2005 http://fdncenter.org/newyork/spotlight/ny_spotlight_082701.html
Bibliography Family Life- Roxane Thogmartin • Garland, Robert. Daily life of the Ancient Greeks. West Port: Greenwood publishing Group, Inc., 1998. • Garland, Robert. The Greek Way of Life: From conception to old age. New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. • Guhl, E. & Koner, W. The Greeks: Their Life and Customs. United Kingdom: Senate, 1994. • Berggreen, Brit and Marinatos, Nanno. Greece and Gender. Bergen: The Norwegian Institute at Athens, 1995. • Gallant, Thomas W. Brief Histories: Modern Greece. New York: Oxford University Press Inc., 2001. • Tsagdi, C.; Taxildaris, K.; Laparidis, K. 2002. Assessing physical activity & physical characteristics of prepubescent children in Greece. The Physical Eduator.59 (2) 75-82. • Anderson, M. 1999. Children in-between: constructing identities in the bicultural family. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute.5 (1) 13-26. • Hondroyiannis, G. 2004. Modeling household fertility decisions in Greece. The Social Science Journal. 41 (3) 477-483. • Kontopoulou, M. 2003. Adjustment Dificulties in Preschool Education; Greek Educators’ Aspects. Early Child Development and Care.173 (2-3) 259-269. • Kakavoulis, A. 2001. Family and Sex Education; a survey of parental attitudes. Sex Education.1 (2). • Dimitra, M. & Etienne, M. 2003. Employment and family as determinants of anticipated life satisfaction among young Greek adults. Community, Work & Family.6 (2).