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(*) This work was done as part of the capstone Chemical Engineering class at OU (**)Capstone Undergraduate Students PowerPoint Presentation
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Evaluation of LNG Production Technologies* Oluwaseun Harris**, Ayema Aduku**, Valerie Rivera**, Debora Faria, and Miguel J. Bagajewicz, .

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Evaluation of LNG Production Technologies*

Oluwaseun Harris**, Ayema Aduku**, Valerie Rivera**, Debora Faria, and Miguel J. Bagajewicz,

We made an analysis of twelve natural gas liquefaction processes and determined fixed costs and operating efficiency as a function of capacity. Eight of the eleven processes are currently established in various parts of the world. The four remaining processes are in developmental stages .

Black and Veatch’s PRICO Process

ConocoPhillips Simple Cascade

T-Q Diagram

Simulation Method

  • Conditions after each stage of refrigeration was noted
  • Processes were translated into simple simulations
  • After making simple simulations mimic real process, variables were transferred to real process simulation
  • Optimization- Refrigerant composition
  • Optimization- Compressor work
  • Restriction- Heat transfer area
    • All cells in LNG HX must have equal area
  • Restriction- Second law of thermodynamics
    • Check temperature of streams
  • Utilities- Acquire water flow rate needed
  • A series of heat exchangers with each stage using a different refrigerant.
  • Tailored to take advantage of different thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants to be used.
  • Usually have high capital costs and can handle very large base loads.

Cascade Processes

Single Refrigeration cycle

  • One refrigeration loop that cools the natural gas to its required temperature range.
  • Usually requires fewer equipment and can only handle small base loads.
  • Lower capital costs and a higher operating efficiency

Natural Gas Cooling Curve

Temperature

Heat

(*) This work was done as part of the capstone Chemical Engineering class at OU

(**)Capstone Undergraduate Students

Objective of each design: getting the curves closer . It reduces the amount of work needed

BP Self Refrigerated Process

APCI . C3MR Process

Processes

Self Refrigerated Cycles

Multiple Refrigeration cycles

Simulation Techniques

  • Takes advantage of the cooling ability of hydrocarbons available in the natural gas to help in the liquefaction process.
  • Numerous expansion stages are required to achieve desired temperatures.
  • Considered as a safer method because there are no external refrigerants needing storage.
  • Contains two or more refrigeration cycles. Refrigerants involved could be a combination of mixed or pure component refrigerants.
  • Some cycles are setup primarily to supplement cooling of the other refrigerants before cooling the natural gas.
  • More equipment usually involved to handle larger base loads.

Natural Gas composition

Methane: 0.98

Ethane: 0.01

Propane: 0.01

Inlet conditions

Pressure: 750 psia

Temperature: 1000F

Outlet conditions

Pressure: 14.7 psia

Temperature: -260oF

Capacity: Common min. to max. capacity of process

Common min. Capacity: 200,000 lbs/hr

Beihai City, China

CONCLUSIONS

  • Each liquefaction process was successfully simulated using SIMSCIPro II software
  • Capital and Energy costs were determined using simulated values.
  • Ranking systems were created based on cost, efficiency and capacity.
  • Connections with existing markettrends were identified, but not all results coincide with thosetrends
  • Because information on operating conditions is scarce and therefore the process may not be at their global optimum, but rather at a local one , better identification of these optimums is required.

Cost and Capacity Relationship

Economic Life of 20 years

New train required at the documented maximum capacity of each specific process.

Average cost of electricity and cooling water throughout the US used in analysis.

Energy cost evaluated at a minimum capacity of 1.2 MTPA

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