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Annual Conference on Watershed Conservation 2002 September 20, 2002 Amherst, MA. Stormwater Management. Eric Winkler, Ph.D. and Susan Guswa, P.E. Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy University of Massachusetts. www.ceere.org. Presentation Outline.

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stormwater management

Annual Conference on

Watershed Conservation 2002

September 20, 2002

Amherst, MA

Stormwater Management

Eric Winkler, Ph.D. and Susan Guswa, P.E.

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

University of Massachusetts

www.ceere.org

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Water Quantity and Quality Issues
  • Rules Today and Tomorrow
  • Structural and Non-Structural Controls
  • Metrics and Measures

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

hydrologic cycle
Hydrologic Cycle

http://www.mde.state.md.us/environment/wma/stormwatermanual/

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

inland natural systems
Inland Natural Systems

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

water quantity effects
Water Quantity Effects
  • Increased flooding potential
  • Changes to streambed morphology

http://www.forester.net, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

water quantity effects6
Water Quantity Effects

Decrease in base flows

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

water quality effects
Water Quality Effects
  • Increased pollutant load
    • Habitat degradation
    • Public health and recreation impacts

Sean Chamberlain, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

water quality effects8
Water Quality Effects

Nutrient and Sediment Transport

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

stormwater pollution sources
Stormwater Pollution Sources
  • Urban runoff
  • Construction
  • Agriculture
  • Forestry
  • Grazing
  • Septic systems
  • Recreational boating
  • Habitat degradation
  • Physical changes to stream channels

http://www.sierraclub.org/sprawl, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

flood control conveyance
Flood Control /Conveyance

http://www.nae.usace.army.mil/recreati/lvl, 2002

http://www.lawrenceks.org, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

water quality stormwater constituents
Water Quality – Stormwater Constituents
  • Sediment
  • Nutrients: nitrogen and phosphorous
  • Oil, grease, and organic chemicals
  • Bacteria and viruses
  • Salt
  • Metals

http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

stormwater constituents median concentrations
Stormwater ConstituentsMedian Concentrations

Source: U.S. EPA, Nationwide Urban Runoff Program, 1983.

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

stormwater management challenges
Stormwater Management Challenges
  • Variability of Flows (Duration, Frequency, Intensity)
  • Difference between peak control and treatment objectives
  • Different water quality constituents require different treatment mechanisms
  • Site-to-site variability of quantity and quality
  • Maintenance of non-centralized treatment units
  • Monitoring and measurement

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

treatment events
Treatment Events
  • Criteria for Storm Events

Figure 6. Cumulative Rainfall record for Boston Logan 1920 - 1999.

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

sizing systems
Sizing Systems
  • Intensity / Duration Frequency Relation

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

calculating peak runoff rates
Calculating Peak Runoff Rates
  • Rainfall Runoff Analysis /Rational Method

Qp = CiA

C = constant runoff coefficient

i = rainfall intensity

A = drainage area

(tc = time of concentration < rainfall duration)

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

federal regulations
Federal Regulations
  • 1987 Clean Water Act Amendments (U.S. EPA)
    • 1990 Phase I National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm Water Program
    • 1999 Phase II NPDES Storm Water Program
  • 1990 Costal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments, Section 6217 (U.S. EPA / NOAA)
    • Costal Zone Management Program

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

npdes permit program
NPDES Permit Program
  • Goal: reduce negative impacts to water quality and aquatic habitat
  • Requirement: develop storm water pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs) or storm water management programs with minimum control measures
  • Implementation: use best management practices (BMPs)

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

npdes applicability
Phase I

"Medium" and "large" municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s) located in incorporated places or counties with populations of 100,000 or more

Eleven categories of industrial activity, one of which is construction activity that disturbs five or more acres of land

Phase II

Certain regulated small municipal separate storm sewer systems (MS4s)

Construction activity disturbing between 1 and 5 acres of land (i.e., small construction activities)

NPDES Applicability

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

phase ii minimum control measures
Phase II Minimum Control Measures
  • Public education and outreach on storm water impacts
  • Public involvement/participation
  • Illicit discharge detection and elimination
  • Construction site storm water runoff control
  • Post-construction storm water management in new development and redevelopment
  • Pollution prevention/good housekeeping for municipal operations

Website for EPA NPDES Phase II Fact Sheets: http://cfpub.epa.gov/npdes/stormwater/swfinal.cfm

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

massachusetts regulations
Massachusetts Regulations
  • Clean Waters Act
  • Wetlands Protection Act
  • Rivers Protection Act
  • 1997 Stormwater Management Standards
    • Developed jointly by CZM and DEP
    • Federal permits need to meet Stormwater Management Standards
    • Administered by DEP and Conservation Commissions

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

stormwater management standards
Stormwater Management Standards
  • No new untreated storm water discharges allowed
  • Post-development peak flow discharge rates < pre-development peak rates
  • Minimize loss of recharge to groundwater
  • Remove 80% of average annual total suspended solids (TSS) load (post development)
  • Discharges from areas with higher potential pollutant loads require use of specific BMPs

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

stormwater management standards23
Stormwater Management Standards
  • Storm water discharges to critical area require use of approved BMPs designed to treat 1 inch runoff volume (post development)
  • Redevelopment sites must meet the Standards
  • Construction sites must utilize sediment and erosion controls
  • Storm water systems must have an operation and management plan

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

non structural bmps
Non-Structural BMPs
  • Pollution prevention/source control
  • Street sweeping
  • Storm water collection system cleaning and maintenance
  • Low impact development and land use planning
  • Snow and snowmelt management
  • Public Education

http://www.tennatoco.com/stormwater, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

better design
Better Design
  • Green roofs
  • High Density
  • Grassed/Porous Pavement

http://www.lrcusace.army.ml, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

structural bmps
Detention/Retention and Vegetated Treatment: detention basins, wet retention ponds, constructed wetlands, water quality swales

Filtration: sand and organic filters

Advanced Sedimentation/Separation: hydrodynamic separators, oil and grit chamber

Infiltration: infiltration trenches, infiltration basins, dry wells (rooftop infiltration)

Pretreatment: water quality inlets, hooded and deep sump catch basins, sediment traps (forebays), and drainage channels

Structural BMPs

Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

detention basins
Detention Basins
  • TSS Removal Efficiency:
    • 60-80% average
    • 70% design
  • Key Features:
    • Large area
    • Peak flow control
  • Maintenance: low
  • Cost: low to

moderate

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

wet retention ponds
Wet (Retention) Ponds
  • Removal Efficiency:
    • 60-80% average
    • 70% design
  • Key Features:
    • Large area
    • Peak flow control
  • Maintenance: low to moderate
  • Cost: low to high

http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

constructed wetlands
Constructed Wetlands
  • Removal Efficiency:
    • 65-80% average
    • 70% design
  • Key Features:
    • Large area
    • Peak flow control
    • Biological treatment
  • Maintenance: low to moderate
  • Cost: marginally higher than wet ponds

http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

water quality swales
Removal Efficiency:

60-80% average

70% design

Key Features:

Higher pollutant removal rates than drainage channels

Transport peak runoff and provide some infiltration

Maintenance: low to moderate

Cost: low to moderate

Water Quality Swales

http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

infiltration trenches basins
Removal Efficiency:

75-80% average

80% design

Features:

Preserves natural water balance on site

Susceptible to clogging

Reduces downstream impacts

Maintenance: high

Cost: moderate to high

Infiltration Trenches/Basins

StormTech, subsidiary to Infiltrator Systems, Inc, 2002

Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

dry wells
Dry Wells
  • Removal Efficiency:
    • 80% average
    • 80% design
  • On-site infiltration
  • For untreated storm water from roofs only (copper excluded)

Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

sand and organic filters
Removal Efficiency:

80% average

80% design

Design Features:

Large area

Peak flow control

Maintenance: high

Cost: high

Sand and Organic Filters

http://www.txnpsbook.org, 2002

Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

inlets and catch basins
Removal Efficiency:

15-35% average

25% design

Design Features:

Debris removal

Pretreatment

Maintenance: moderate to high

Cost: low to high

Inlets and Catch Basins

Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

sediment traps forebays
Removal Efficiency:

25% average

25% design

Design Features:

Pretreatment

Retrofit expansion

Larger space requirement than inlet.

Maintenance: moderate

Cost: low to moderate

Sediment Traps/Forebays

Source: MADEP/MACZM Massachusetts Stormwater Management, Volume 2: Stormwater Technical Handbook, March 1997

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

innovative bmps advanced sedimentation
Innovative BMPs - Advanced Sedimentation
  • Removal Efficiency:
    • 50-80% average
    • 80% design
  • Design Features:
    • small area
    • Oil and Grease control
  • Maintenance: moderate
  • Cost: moderate

Rinker Inc, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

innovative bmps sand filtration
Innovative BMPs - Sand Filtration
  • Removal Efficiency:
    • 50-80% average
    • 80% design
  • Design Features:
    • small area
    • Nutrient and pathogen (potential)
  • Maintenance: moderate
  • Cost: moderate

Stormtreat Inc, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

innovative bmps hydrodynamic
Innovative BMPs - Hydrodynamic
  • Removal Efficiency:
    • 50-80% average
    • 80% design
  • Design Features:
    • small area
    • Oil and Grease control
  • Maintenance: moderate
  • Cost: moderate

Vortechs Inc, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

innovative bmps media filtration
Innovative BMPs – Media Filtration
  • Removal Efficiency:
    • 50-80% average
    • 80% design
  • Design Features:
    • small area
    • Oil and Grease control
  • Maintenance: moderate
  • Cost: moderate

Stormwater Management Inc, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

innovative bmps inlet inserts
Innovative BMPs – Inlet Inserts
  • Removal Efficiency:
    • To be determined
  • Design Features:
    • Retrofit
    • Construction
    • Oil and Grease control
  • Maintenance: moderate
  • Cost: moderate

http://www.stormdrainsfilters.com, 2002

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

water quality monitoring
Water Quality Monitoring

TARP- Technology Acceptance Reciprocity Program

  • Address technology review and approval barriers in policy and regulations;
  • Accept the performance tests and data from partner’s review to reduce subsequent review and approval time;
  • Use the Protocol for state-led initiatives, grants, and verification or certification programs; and
  • Share technology information with potential users in the public and private sectors using existing state supported programs

CA

IL

MA

MD

NJ

NY

PA

VA

TX

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

performance verification tarp
Performance Verification - TARP
  • Storm Event Criteria to Sample
    • More than 0.1 inch of total rainfall.
    • A minimum inter-event period of 6 hours, where cessation of flow from the system begins the inter-event period.
    • Obtain flow-weighted composite samples covering a minimum of 70 % of the total storm flow, including as much of the first 20 % of the storm as possible.
    • A minimum of 10 water quality samples (i.e., 10 influent and 10 effluent samples) should be collected per storm event.
  • Determining a Representative Data Set
    • At least 50 % of the total annual rainfall must be sampled, for a minimum of 15 inches of precipitation and at least 15, but preferably 20, storms.

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

performance verification tarp43
Performance Verification - TARP
  • Stormwater Sampling Locations
    • Sampling locations for stormwater BMPs should be taken at inlet and outlet.
  • Sampling Methods
    • Programmable automatic flow samplers with continuous flow measurements should be used
    • Grab samples used for: pH, temperature, cyanide, total phenols, residual chlorine, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), E coli, total coliform, fecal coliform and streptococci, and enterococci.
  • Stormwater Flow Measurement Methods
    • Primary and secondary flow measurement devices are required.

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

performance verification tarp44
Performance Verification - TARP
  • Sample Data Quality Assurance and Control
    • Equipment decontamination,
    • Preservation,
    • Holding time,
    • Volume,
    • QC samples (spikes, blanks, splits, and field and lab duplicates),
    • QA on sampling equipment
    • Packaging and shipping,
    • Identification and labeling, and
    • Chain-of-custody.

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

performance verification tarp45
Performance Verification - TARP

Calculating BMP Efficiencies (ASCE BMP Efficiencies Task 3.1)

  • Process efficiencies or removal rates should be determined from influent and effluent contaminant concentration and flow data.
    • Efficiency Ratio,
    • Summation of Loads,
    • Regression of Loads,
    • Mean Concentration, and
    • Efficiency of Individual Storm Loads.

Note: The Efficiency Ratio method is preferred.

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

contacts

www.ceere.org/ees

Contacts

Eric Winkler, Ph.D. Director, Technical Services(413) 545-2853 (Voice)winkler@ceere.org

Susan Guswa, P.E.

Environmental Analyst(413) 545-2165 (Voice)guswa@ceere.org

Center for Energy Efficiency

and Renewable Energy

Energy and Environmental Services

160 Governors Drive

University of Massachusetts

Amherst, MA 01003-9265

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002

questions and answers
Questions and Answers

Center for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, UMass, Copyright, 2002