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LIMNOLOGY 101 Courtesy of the WI Lakes Partnership Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Wisconsin Association of Lakes University of Wisconsin Extension Wisconsin Lakes OVERVIEW Unique Properties of Water Lake Types Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics

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limnology 101

LIMNOLOGY 101

Courtesy of the WI Lakes Partnership

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Wisconsin Association of LakesUniversity of Wisconsin Extension

overview
OVERVIEW
  • Unique Properties of Water
  • Lake Types
  • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics
  • Technical Aspects
unique properties of water
UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF WATER
  • Universal Solvent
  • Chemical Molecular Structure H20
  • Greatest Density at 4º C or 39º F
unique properties of water5
UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF WATER
  • Physical Properties
  • 71% Earth’s Surface Covered by Water
  • <1% Water on Earth is Freshwater
  • .009% water on Earth is Freshwater Lakes
overview7
OVERVIEW
  • Unique Properties of Water
  • Lake Types
  • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics
  • Technical Aspects
lake types
LAKE TYPES
  • Seepage
  • Groundwater Drainage
  • Drainage
  • Impoundments
  • Oxbow
seepage lake
SEEPAGE LAKE
  • Natural Lake
  • Water Source
    • Groundwater
    • Precipitation
    • Runoff
  • No Stream Outlet/ Inlet
seepage lake10
SEEPAGE LAKE
  • Round Lake, Chippewa County
groundwater drainage
GROUNDWATER DRAINAGE
  • Natural Lake
  • Water Source
    • Groundwater
    • Precipitation
    • Limited Runoff
  • Has Stream Outlet
groundwater drainage lake
GROUNDWATER DRAINAGE LAKE
  • Sand Lake, Chippewa County
drainage lake
DRAINAGE LAKE
  • Water Source
    • Streams
    • Groundwater
    • Precipitation
    • Runoff
  • Stream Drained
drainage lake14
DRAINAGE LAKE
  • Long Lake, Chippewa County
impoundment
IMPOUNDMENT
  • A manmade lake
  • Dammed riveror stream
impoundment16
IMPOUNDMENT
  • Lake Altoona, Eau Claire County
oxbow
OXBOW
  • Half Moon Lake, Chippewa County
  • Lake Hallie, Chippewa County
overview18
OVERVIEW
  • Unique Properties of Water
  • Lake Types
  • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics
  • Technical Aspects
physical characteristics
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • Mixing / Stratification
  • Lake Depth
  • Retention Time / Flushing Rate
  • Drainage Basin/ Lake Area Ratio
  • Influence of Watershed Runoff
lake depth matters
LAKE DEPTH MATTERS
  • Deep Lakes

Stratify

  • Shallow Lakes

Continuous Nutrient Recycling

retention time flushing rate
RETENTION TIME/FLUSHING RATE
  • How long would it take to fill a drained lake?
  • Retention Time Matters
  • Long Lake & Altoona
    • Round Lake, 7 years
    • Lake Altoona, 22 days
drainage basin lake area ratio
DRAINAGE BASIN/LAKE AREA RATIO
  • Seepage Lake- small
  • Drainage Lake- large watershed
    • Seepage Lake w/ drainage area mapped Round Lake
chemical characteristics
CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • Nutrients
    • P
    • N
  • pH
  • Hardness/ Alkalinity
  • Dissolved Oxygen(optimum 5 ppm)
limiting nutrient principle
LIMITING NUTRIENT PRINCIPLE

…That Nutrient in Least SupplyRelative to Plant Needs

N:P Ratio in plant Tissue 10:1 - 15:1

If the Ratio of N:P in Water is

<10:1 Nitrogen Limited

>15:1 Phosphorus Limited

biological characteristics
BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • Viruses/ Bacteria/ Fungi
  • Primary - Producers Algae/ Macrophyte
  • Zooplankton/ Inverts
  • Fish
algae
ALGAE
  • Primary Energy Sourcefor Invertebrates
  • Can be Nuisance
  • Produce O2
aquatic plants
AQUATIC PLANTS
  • Habitat
  • Energy Dissipation
  • O2 Producers
slide32
FISH

Planktivore

Piscivore

Benthivore

overview34
OVERVIEW
  • Unique Properties of Water
  • Lake Types
  • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics
  • Technical Aspects
trophic state38
TROPHIC STATE
  • Nutrients & Productivity
  • Sediment & Accumulation
  • Species Shifts
  • Species Richness
lake littoral zone
LAKE LITTORAL ZONE
  • Functions
    • Intercepts Nutrients
    • Refuge from Predators
    • Nursery for Fish

Oligotrophic Northern Lake

Eutrophic Southern Lake

lake littoral zone42
LAKE LITTORAL ZONE
  • Functions
    • Intercepts Nutrients
    • Refuge from Predators
    • Nursery for Fish

Oligotrophic Northern Lake

Eutrophic Southern Lake

leaving a legacy

LEAVING A LEGACY

Help Protect Wisconsin’s…

WATER RESOURCES