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LIMNOLOGY 101

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  1. LIMNOLOGY 101 Courtesy of the WI Lakes Partnership Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources Wisconsin Association of LakesUniversity of Wisconsin Extension

  2. Wisconsin Lakes

  3. OVERVIEW • Unique Properties of Water • Lake Types • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics • Technical Aspects

  4. UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF WATER • Universal Solvent • Chemical Molecular Structure H20 • Greatest Density at 4º C or 39º F

  5. UNIQUE PROPERTIES OF WATER • Physical Properties • 71% Earth’s Surface Covered by Water • <1% Water on Earth is Freshwater • .009% water on Earth is Freshwater Lakes

  6. HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

  7. OVERVIEW • Unique Properties of Water • Lake Types • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics • Technical Aspects

  8. LAKE TYPES • Seepage • Groundwater Drainage • Drainage • Impoundments • Oxbow

  9. SEEPAGE LAKE • Natural Lake • Water Source • Groundwater • Precipitation • Runoff • No Stream Outlet/ Inlet

  10. SEEPAGE LAKE • Round Lake, Chippewa County

  11. GROUNDWATER DRAINAGE • Natural Lake • Water Source • Groundwater • Precipitation • Limited Runoff • Has Stream Outlet

  12. GROUNDWATER DRAINAGE LAKE • Sand Lake, Chippewa County

  13. DRAINAGE LAKE • Water Source • Streams • Groundwater • Precipitation • Runoff • Stream Drained

  14. DRAINAGE LAKE • Long Lake, Chippewa County

  15. IMPOUNDMENT • A manmade lake • Dammed riveror stream

  16. IMPOUNDMENT • Lake Altoona, Eau Claire County

  17. OXBOW • Half Moon Lake, Chippewa County • Lake Hallie, Chippewa County

  18. OVERVIEW • Unique Properties of Water • Lake Types • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics • Technical Aspects

  19. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS • Mixing / Stratification • Lake Depth • Retention Time / Flushing Rate • Drainage Basin/ Lake Area Ratio • Influence of Watershed Runoff

  20. MIXING/ STRATIFICATION

  21. LAKE DEPTH MATTERS • Deep Lakes Stratify • Shallow Lakes Continuous Nutrient Recycling

  22. RETENTION TIME/FLUSHING RATE • How long would it take to fill a drained lake? • Retention Time Matters • Long Lake & Altoona • Round Lake, 7 years • Lake Altoona, 22 days

  23. DRAINAGE BASIN/LAKE AREA RATIO • Seepage Lake- small • Drainage Lake- large watershed • Seepage Lake w/ drainage area mapped Round Lake

  24. LANDSCAPE POSITION

  25. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS • Nutrients • P • N • pH • Hardness/ Alkalinity • Dissolved Oxygen(optimum 5 ppm)

  26. LIMITING NUTRIENT PRINCIPLE …That Nutrient in Least SupplyRelative to Plant Needs N:P Ratio in plant Tissue 10:1 - 15:1 If the Ratio of N:P in Water is <10:1 Nitrogen Limited >15:1 Phosphorus Limited

  27. PHOSPHORUS LIMITATIONLAKE 227

  28. BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS • Viruses/ Bacteria/ Fungi • Primary - Producers Algae/ Macrophyte • Zooplankton/ Inverts • Fish

  29. ALGAE • Primary Energy Sourcefor Invertebrates • Can be Nuisance • Produce O2

  30. AQUATIC PLANTS • Habitat • Energy Dissipation • O2 Producers

  31. ZOOPLANKTON &AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES Zooplankton Dragonfly

  32. FISH Planktivore Piscivore Benthivore

  33. TROPHIC PYRIMID

  34. OVERVIEW • Unique Properties of Water • Lake Types • Physical, Chemical, Biological and Habitat Characteristics • Technical Aspects

  35. TROPHIC STATE

  36. TROPHIC STATE

  37. TROPHIC STATE

  38. TROPHIC STATE • Nutrients & Productivity • Sediment & Accumulation • Species Shifts • Species Richness

  39. LAKE LITTORAL ZONE • Functions • Intercepts Nutrients • Refuge from Predators • Nursery for Fish Oligotrophic Northern Lake Eutrophic Southern Lake

  40. TOTAL PHOSPHORUS/ CHLOROPHYLL a RELATIONSHIP • Phosphoruscauses algaeto grow

  41. LAKE HABITAT ZONES

  42. LAKE LITTORAL ZONE • Functions • Intercepts Nutrients • Refuge from Predators • Nursery for Fish Oligotrophic Northern Lake Eutrophic Southern Lake

  43. ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNS OF DEGRADATION

  44. LOSS OF WATER CLARITY

  45. HYPOLIMNETIC DO DEPLETION

  46. NUISANCE ALGAE BLOOMS

  47. FISHERIES DEGRADATION

  48. PALEOLIMNOLGY

  49. LEAVING A LEGACY Help Protect Wisconsin’s… WATER RESOURCES