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The Aftermath of Independence, 1830-1850 (pp. 36-40) The economies of the new nations were overwhelmingly based on agriculture. Latin American exports to the North Atlantic economy increased. Chile: wheat and nitrates Colombia: tobacco Argentina: hides, salted beef and wool Peru: guano
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José Antonio Páez
Importation of manufactured goods
The industrial nations invested in Latin America. By 1913 British investors owned approximately two-thirds of the total foreign investment in Latin America.
Railroads and Mining.
The “export-import form of economic growth stimulated development in the raw-material sectors of the Latin American economies. The impetus and capital came largely from abroad. (p. 44)
Liberalism and concerns about the supposed racial inferiority of their native populations.
Inferiority complex. Imitators of European culture.
Entrepreneurial spirit of the elite.
Merchants and lawyers
Oligarchic democracies and dictatorships.
Emphasis on stability and social control. Political stability was viewed as essential to attract foreign investment, which, in turn, could stimulate economic growth.
The Growing Pull of the Demand in the Developed Countries: By the late nineteen century, industrialization in Europe was producing a strong demand for foodstuffs and raw materials. English and European laborers, now living in cities and working in factories, needed to purchase food they could no longer cultivate. And captains of industry, eater to expand their output and operations, were seeking raw material, particularly minerals. Both incentives led governments and investors in Europe to begin looking abroad—to Africa, to Asia, and, of course, to Latin America. (Skidmore & Smith, Modern Latin America, 43)
The English philosopher Herbert Spencer relied on the theories of evolution to explain differences between the strong and the weak: successful individuals and races had competed better in the natural world and consequently evolved to higher states than did other less fit peoples. On the basis of this reasoning, Spencer and others justified the domination of European imperialists over subject peoples as the inevitable result of natural scientific principles. (B & Z, p. 960.)
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
The first step towards lightening the White Man’s Burden is through teaching the virtues of cleanliness. Pears’ Soap is a potent factor in brightening the dark corners of the earth as civilization advances, while amongst the cultured of all nations it holds the highest place--it is the ideal toilet soap.
David Siquieros Mural: "Don Porfirio [Diaz] and his Courtesans". 1957-65
A Mural by Diego Rivera
The Decadence of the Porfiriato
Growth in Foreign Trade, 1877-1910
Phase 4: Stagnation in Import-Substituting Growth, 1960-1980s (pp. 55-58)