slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
The Aftermath of Independence, 1830-1850 (pp. 36-40) The economies of the new nations were overwhelmingly based on agric PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
The Aftermath of Independence, 1830-1850 (pp. 36-40) The economies of the new nations were overwhelmingly based on agric

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 25

The Aftermath of Independence, 1830-1850 (pp. 36-40) The economies of the new nations were overwhelmingly based on agric - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 308 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Aftermath of Independence, 1830-1850 (pp. 36-40) The economies of the new nations were overwhelmingly based on agriculture. Latin American exports to the North Atlantic economy increased. Chile: wheat and nitrates Colombia: tobacco Argentina: hides, salted beef and wool Peru: guano

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Aftermath of Independence, 1830-1850 (pp. 36-40) The economies of the new nations were overwhelmingly based on agric' - JasminFlorian


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

The Aftermath of Independence, 1830-1850 (pp. 36-40)

  • The economies of the new nations were overwhelmingly based on agriculture.
  • Latin American exports to the North Atlantic economy increased.
    • Chile: wheat and nitrates
    • Colombia: tobacco
    • Argentina: hides, salted beef and wool
    • Peru: guano
    • Cuba: sugar
    • Brazil: coffee
    • Venezuela: cacao
  • These same countries were heavily importing textiles and consumer goods, thereby often throwing local artisan producers out of work.
  • This was all part of free trade, the dogma that had arrived in Latin America with Enlightenment philosophy and the post-independence commitment to the principles of liberalism.
  • The economic record of the 1830-50 period is one of slow adaptation to the world economy
  • Caudillos

José Antonio Páez

slide2

The Pull of the International Economy, 1850-1880s (pp. 40-41)

  • The era of the caudillo gave way to the era of the administrators and national unification.
  • Most governments sought to put land into the hand of entrepreneurs who would invest and make it bear fruit. In Brazil and Mexico that meant government pressure to sell off government (previously crown) land. (Ejido) The losers in Mexico and the Andes were the Indians, but such action could also hit white or mestizo owners who had failed to develop their lands.
  • Governments promoted European immigration.
slide3

Phase I: Initiation of Export-Import Growth, 1880-1900 (pp. 43-47)

European Industrialization

Importation of manufactured goods

The industrial nations invested in Latin America. By 1913 British investors owned approximately two-thirds of the total foreign investment in Latin America.

Railroads and Mining.

The “export-import form of economic growth stimulated development in the raw-material sectors of the Latin American economies. The impetus and capital came largely from abroad. (p. 44)

Liberalism (laissez-faire)

Liberalism and concerns about the supposed racial inferiority of their native populations.

Inferiority complex. Imitators of European culture.

Environmental determinism.

Entrepreneurial spirit of the elite.

Merchants and lawyers

Oligarchic democracies and dictatorships.

Emphasis on stability and social control. Political stability was viewed as essential to attract foreign investment, which, in turn, could stimulate economic growth.

slide5

The Growing Pull of the Demand in the Developed Countries: By the late nineteen century, industrialization in Europe was producing a strong demand for foodstuffs and raw materials. English and European laborers, now living in cities and working in factories, needed to purchase food they could no longer cultivate. And captains of industry, eater to expand their output and operations, were seeking raw material, particularly minerals. Both incentives led governments and investors in Europe to begin looking abroad—to Africa, to Asia, and, of course, to Latin America. (Skidmore & Smith, Modern Latin America, 43)

slide9

The English philosopher Herbert Spencer relied on the theories of evolution to explain differences between the strong and the weak: successful individuals and races had competed better in the natural world and consequently evolved to higher states than did other less fit peoples. On the basis of this reasoning, Spencer and others justified the domination of European imperialists over subject peoples as the inevitable result of natural scientific principles. (B & Z, p. 960.)

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

slide10

The first step towards lightening the White Man’s Burden is through teaching the virtues of cleanliness. Pears’ Soap is a potent factor in brightening the dark corners of the earth as civilization advances, while amongst the cultured of all nations it holds the highest place--it is the ideal toilet soap.

slide16

Los Rurales

Porfirio Díaz

(1830-1915)

slide17

David Siquieros Mural: "Don Porfirio [Diaz] and his Courtesans". 1957-65

A Mural by Diego Rivera

The Decadence of the Porfiriato

porfiriato

Porfiriato

Growth in Foreign Trade, 1877-1910

slide22

Phase 2: Expansion of the Export-Import Growth, 1900-1930 (pp. 47-51)

  • The appearance and growth of middle social strata
  • The appearance of incipient working classes
  • The growth of large cities
  • Because of national or ethnic origin, laboring classes did not gain much of a foothold on political power in the early twentieth century. (p. 49)
  • Why did Latin America not fully economically develop? Fundamentally, Latin America had remained an agrarian economy whose export sector was matched, in most countries, by a huge subsistence sector. (p. 51)
slide23

Phase 3: Import-Substituting Industrialization, 1930-1960 (pp. 51-55)

  • Great Depression
  • Within a year or so after the October 1929 stock market crash in New York, army officers had sought or taken power in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Peru, Guatemala, El Salvador, and Honduras.
  • “Import-substituting industrialization (ISI)
  • Latin American governments actively promoted growth.
      • Tariffs
      • Favoring local producers in government contracts
      • Establishing government-run companies
  • Rise of populists. For example: Juan Perón (Argentina), Getúlio Vargas (Brazil)
slide24

Phase 4: Stagnation in Import-Substituting Growth, 1960-1980s (pp. 55-58)

  • Industrialization through ISI was structurally incomplete and dependent on capital goods
  • Domestic demand for manufactured products was limited.
  • As pressure mounted, ruling elites in several countries imposed highly repressive regimes, often through military coups—as in Brazil (1964), Argentina (1966), and Chile (1973)
  • “Bureaucratic-authoritarian” states
  • Granted public positions to people with highly bureaucratized careers
  • The political exclusion of the working class
  • Reduction or near-elimination of political activity.
  • Problems were defined as technical, not political, and they were met with administrative solutions rather than negotiated political settlements.
  • Bureaucratic-authoritarian governments sought to revive economic growth by consolidating ties with international economic forces.
  • “Chicago boys”
  • Debt
slide25

Phase 5: Crisis, Debt, and Democracy, 1980s-2000s

  • Neo-liberal Reforms
  • Gradual Recovery
  • Increased mobilization of middle- and lower-class groups
  • Incomplete or fragile electoral democracy.