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Insect Mouthparts. Mouthparts. Another prominent feature of the head Adults that don’t feed Vestigial – highly reduced Absent – not there Shape and morphology related to the food it consumes. Types of Mouthparts. Chewing Ex. Grasshopper or mantis Piercing-sucking

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Insect Mouthparts

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  • Another prominent feature of the head
  • Adults that don’t feed
    • Vestigial – highly reduced
    • Absent – not there
  • Shape and morphology related to the food it consumes
types of mouthparts
Types of Mouthparts
  • Chewing
    • Ex. Grasshopper or mantis
  • Piercing-sucking
    • Ex. Mosquito or assassin bug
  • Sponging
    • Ex. House fly
  • Siphoning
    • Ex. Flea
  • Chewing-lapping
    • Ex. Honey bee
chewing mouthparts
Chewing Mouthparts
  • Clypus – immovable; above the labrum
  • Labrum – “upper-lip”; can be bent
  • Mandibles – paired; responsible for tearing or biting food and then grinding or chewing it so insect can ingest; darkest portion is the hardest
chewing mouthparts1
Chewing mouthparts
  • Maxilla – below mandible; projection near base called maxillary palpi which helps move food into the mouth;
  • Labium – “lower-lip”
  • Labial palpi –similar function to maxillary palpi; project from base of labium
  • Hypopharynx – “tongue”; on upper surface of labium
piercing sucking mouthparts
Piercing-sucking mouthparts
  • Why?
    • Liquid diet
  • Type of liquid diets?
    • Nectar
    • Plant juices
    • Blood
  • Mouthparts as a whole called beak
piercing sucking mouthparts1
Piercing-sucking mouthparts
  • Same general mouthparts as chewing, but shaped differently
  • Mandibles and maxillae are shaped into long, slender stylets
  • The stylets are housed within a protective sheath made from the labium
piercing sucking mouthparts2
Piercing-sucking mouthparts
  • One or more channels
    • Suck in food
    • Salivary channel for secretions
  • Types of secretions
    • Antistetics
    • Anticoagluants
    • Toxins
    • Enzymes (break down food)
sponging mouthparts
Sponging Mouthparts
  • Why?
    • Non-invasive sucking of liquids
  • Types of meals?
    • Exposed food or liquid
    • Blood
  • Common among flies
sponging mouthparts1
Sponging Mouthparts
  • The proboscis is a modified labium
  • The end of the proboscis are the modified labella
  • The labella are fleshy lobes with transverse grooves that use capillary action to draw food up to the mouth
variations of sponging mouthparts
Variations of sponging mouthparts
  • Horse fly – have blade-like part that slices skin. Blood pools and sponging mouthparts sponge the blood up.
  • Tsetse fly – have teeth on labella that cut the skin then they suck up the blood
siphoning mouthparts
Siphoning mouthparts
  • Why?
    • Get liquid meals from deep within flowers
  • Types of food?
    • Nectar
    • Water
    • Salt and minerals in liquid
  • Butterflies and moths
siphoning mouthparts1
Siphoning mouthparts
  • Coiled tongue is modified maxillae
  • Labial palpi are located between head and proboscis
  • Other mouthparts are either too small to see or have been lost evolutionarily
  • Proboscis works like a straw
chewing lapping mouthparts
Chewing Lapping mouthparts
  • Insects that lap up liquids, but still have intact mandibles
  • Uses mandibles to perform other tasks
  • Ex. Honeybee will use mandibles to form wax into combs
other mouthparts
Other mouthparts
  • Antlion larvae have huge toothed mandibles that grab ants as they fall into their sand traps
  • Dragonfly larvae (naiads) labiums have become a long, flat hinged structure that shoots out and impales or hooks the prey

Antlion larvae

Dragonfly larvae