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Groupwork SWK318

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    1. Groupwork (SWK318)

    2. Aim of Course to provide a knowledge base for working with groups and group care to share practical ways of working with groups to experience being in a group and to rehearse group planning decisions to lay the foundation for groupwork on placement to learn about the possibilities of groupwork

    3. Content Characteristics of groups Planning groups Contracting Processes Programming Activities Conducting Problems Anti-oppressive practice Recording Endings

    4. Weekly structure Week 1 to week 5: Lecture Seminar: in small groups planning a groupwork project Week 6: assessment for 50% of marks Small group presentations 15 mins each

    5. Assessment criteria: 10% each Content Expression of aims and objectives Understanding of groupwork theory Understanding of decisions re. structure Understanding of decisions re. content Issues of power and oppression Understanding of process Presentation delivery Interesting and involving Structure and timing Teamwork

    6. Recommended Texts Brown, A. (1992) Groupwork, Third Edition, Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Preston-Shoot, M. (2007) Effective Groupwork, 2nd Edition , Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan Benson, J. (1987) Working More Creatively with Groups. London, Tavistock Doel, M and Sawdon (1999) The Essential Groupworker London: Jessica Kingsley Lindsay, T and Orton, S (2008) Groupwork Practice in Social Work, Exeter: Learning Matters Whitaker, D. S. (2001) Using Groups to Help People, Second Edition. Hove: Brunner-Routledge (also 1st edition 1985)

    7. What is a group? Key attributes: Frequent interaction Identify with one another Identified by others as a group Identify themselves as a group Share beliefs, values and norms in some respect Come together for a common task or shared purpose

    8. What is Groupwork Method of social work Helps individuals (mainly by them helping each other) Helps groups help themselves Is purposeful Directed at enabling people to influence and change personal, group, organisational and community problems Some groups are directed at group therapy emotional need and/or psychological process Some at social functioning Family therapy can involve groupwork but is best thought of as a social work method in its own right

    9. Why Learn About Groupwork? Major social work method Helps with other situations, e.g. teams Empowers clients Provides ways of reaching the unreachable Provides opportunities to work with colleagues Provides opportunities for fun Group experience is fundamental You have to complete four sessions of groupwork on placement! ICE BREAKERS 1. THE PLANK FIRST NAMES A-Z TIME UP THIS AM HOMETOWN - DISTANCE 2. IN PAIRS - WHAT EXPERIENCE CLASS HAVE OF BEING IN A GROUPS? - BRAINSTORM 3. IN PAIRS - WHAT EXPERIENCE OF WORKING IN GROUPS BRAINSTORMICE BREAKERS 1. THE PLANK FIRST NAMES A-Z TIME UP THIS AM HOMETOWN - DISTANCE 2. IN PAIRS - WHAT EXPERIENCE CLASS HAVE OF BEING IN A GROUPS? - BRAINSTORM 3. IN PAIRS - WHAT EXPERIENCE OF WORKING IN GROUPS BRAINSTORM

    10. Who is here? Of what groups have you been a member?

    11. Potential advantages of groupwork Social living is in groups - transferability People with similar needs can help each other Every member is a potential helper Attitudes feelings and behaviour can be changed through social interaction Role modelling, reinforcement, feedback Opportunities for a range of interventions Can be democratic and self-determining Particularly suitable for some service users

    12. Potential disadvantages of groupwork Confidentiality Complex to plan, organise and implement Obstacles at member, colleague and agency levels Resources Individual gets less exclusive attention Can increase labelling and stigma May be damaging for a small minority Attacks, rejection, experience of failure, coercion, loss of reality

    13. Special Characteristics of Small Helping Groups Develop norms and belief systems Develop moods and atmospheres Develop cohesiveness Develop and change over time Power and influence are unevenly distributed CLASS EXERCISE: IN PAIRS DISCUSS A GOOD EXPERIENCE WHICH AROSE OUT OF A GROUP EXPERIENCE AND A BAD EXPERIENCE CLASS EXERCISE: IN PAIRS DISCUSS A GOOD EXPERIENCE WHICH AROSE OUT OF A GROUP EXPERIENCE AND A BAD EXPERIENCE

    14. People for whom groups can be useful linked fate relationships needing enhanced skills life transitions regarded by others as having problems unsatisfactory functioning cannot achieve personal goals systems of people people in the community CLASS EXERCISE: WRITE ON A PIECE OF PAPER 3 THINGS ABOUT YOURSELF - TWO TRUE, ONE FALSE CLASS EXERCISE - FORM GROUPS OF STAR SIGNS - FIND OUT WHAT YOU HAVE IN COMMONCLASS EXERCISE: WRITE ON A PIECE OF PAPER 3 THINGS ABOUT YOURSELF - TWO TRUE, ONE FALSE CLASS EXERCISE - FORM GROUPS OF STAR SIGNS - FIND OUT WHAT YOU HAVE IN COMMON

    15. Types of groups activity groups support and discussion groups skill-development groups therapeutic groups action groups self-help groups family groups

    16. Conductor Tasks structuring maintaining monitoring intervening Structuring Before the group begins: such preparatory work as appropriate, e.g. clarifying ideas about the group's purpose building up agency support and canvassing for referrals interviewing and selection making necessary practical arrangements deciding duration of group, duration of meetings etc. etc. When the group starts stating the goals as the groupworker sees them clarifying the contract opening the group, saying when time is up etc. etc.Structuring Before the group begins: such preparatory work as appropriate, e.g. clarifying ideas about the group's purpose building up agency support and canvassing for referrals interviewing and selection making necessary practical arrangements deciding duration of group, duration of meetings etc. etc. When the group starts stating the goals as the groupworker sees them clarifying the contract opening the group, saying when time is up etc. etc.

    17. Structuring preparation agency support referrals interviewing and selection practical arrangements decisions about duration, numbers etc stating goals clarifying contract etc.. etc Maintaining marginal work members or their families following up absentees liaison with other workers who are involved members liaison with other professionals recording maintaining practical arrangements planning activities trying them out in advance Monitoring i.e. the task of listening and trying to understand individual, the interpersonal, the group Maintaining marginal work members or their families following up absentees liaison with other workers who are involved members liaison with other professionals recording maintaining practical arrangements planning activities trying them out in advance Monitoring i.e. the task of listening and trying to understand individual, the interpersonal, the group

    18. Maintaining marginal work with members and families following up absentees liaison with other workers involved recording maintaining practical arrangements planning and testing activities

    19. Monitoring listening and observing at three levels the individual the interpersonal the group

    20. Intervening doing what belong to the role doing what no one else can or is doing supporting the development of a facilitating atmosphere contributing ideas, facts and values, when useful to the group providing missing roles instructing (sometimes)

    21. Pre-group stage: Planning decisions The need to be met The aim of the group The potential membership Group structure Leadership arrangements Theoretical basis Methods & techniques Recording & evaluation Supervision & consultancy Agency issues

    22. Structure of groups size duration constancy of membership composition not to isolate one individual range of personalities homogeneous/heterogeneous those for whom it is not appropriate WARM UP - STAR SIGNS? REVIEW OF LAST WEEK CHARACTERISTICS NORMS AND BELIEFS MOODS AND ATMOSPHERES COHESIVENESS CHANGE OVER TIME POWER AND INFLUENCE INITIAL PLANNING - CLIENTS FOR WHOM GROUPS CAN BE USEFUL OTHER PLANNING DECISIONS: RELATIONSHIP OF AGENCY AND COLLEAGUES PURPOSE OF GROUP WORKERS ROLE - GETTING IT STARTED, FACILITATING, EXPLOITING MATERIAL STRUCTURING AFFINITY GAME HOMEWORK - FIND OUT ABOUT A QUICK GAME - REFER TO LIBRARY WARM UP - STAR SIGNS? REVIEW OF LAST WEEK CHARACTERISTICS NORMS AND BELIEFS MOODS AND ATMOSPHERES COHESIVENESS CHANGE OVER TIME POWER AND INFLUENCE INITIAL PLANNING - CLIENTS FOR WHOM GROUPS CAN BE USEFUL OTHER PLANNING DECISIONS: RELATIONSHIP OF AGENCY AND COLLEAGUES PURPOSE OF GROUP WORKERS ROLE - GETTING IT STARTED, FACILITATING, EXPLOITING MATERIAL STRUCTURING AFFINITY GAME HOMEWORK - FIND OUT ABOUT A QUICK GAME - REFER TO LIBRARY

    23. Setting up the group Offering the group Criteria for membership Preliminary meetings service user participation introductions information motivation matching individualisation choice

    24. Contracting what to include aims individual goals guarantees what will happen practicalities Expectations (rules and sanctions) confidentiality other contacts - with you, with others.

    25. Exercise Group members will: attend all sessions two misses and you are out turn up on time keep the content of sessions confidential treat each other with respect be non-discriminatory in verbal and non-verbal interactions not interrupt when someone else is speaking trust each other

    26. Content vs. process Content What of group experience what is happening what is being said On the surface and observable Immediate Speed Process How of group experience the way in which a group behaves reflected in the quality of the group experience Underneath and felt Changes over time Acceleration

    27. The worker and process It is possible to discern themes and patterns in the flow of group process. We can develop skills of working with process by becoming more receptive to the emotional and physical experience. The worker can intervene to influence process. Since the whole process is so fluid knowledge skills and values can be used effectively to promote positive change.

    28. Group processes Tuckmans Linear Model forming storming norming performing mourning

    29. Group Processes Schutzs cyclical model Inclusion: desire to connect with others - becoming familiar - restlessness tension mobility - forming Control: independent and assertive activity centered on areas of power, authority, influence, decision making and communication. How much influence do I have? How much personal autonomy do I have to sacrifice to belong? Affection: building emotional ties - sense of identity and pulling together norming People begin to acknowledge difference. People begin to form closer groupings - this leads to relative isolation for others so group needs to return to an inclusion stage. Schultz suggested that to end, the process had to be reversed - dealing with personal feelings about closure (affection) then comply or rebel against leaders wishes (control), finally discussing continuing, assessing commitment of members and preparing for entry into outside world (inclusion)Inclusion: desire to connect with others - becoming familiar - restlessness tension mobility - forming Control: independent and assertive activity centered on areas of power, authority, influence, decision making and communication. How much influence do I have? How much personal autonomy do I have to sacrifice to belong? Affection: building emotional ties - sense of identity and pulling together norming People begin to acknowledge difference. People begin to form closer groupings - this leads to relative isolation for others so group needs to return to an inclusion stage. Schultz suggested that to end, the process had to be reversed - dealing with personal feelings about closure (affection) then comply or rebel against leaders wishes (control), finally discussing continuing, assessing commitment of members and preparing for entry into outside world (inclusion)

    30. Other models Whitaker Group focal conflict theory Disturbing motive basic impulse/wish - love Reactive motive fear or guilt in conflict with disturbing motive losing control, being criticised etc Solution restrictive flight, blame etc or enabling acknowledging feelings etc Solutional conflict Benson Love vs. will Stages theory is a map not a territory

    31. Love Love Behaviour Making friends Joining in Taking sides Conversation Sharing Trusting Co-operating Encouraging Love Distortions Being shy Embarrassed Fear of rejection Superficiality Silence Jealousy Suspicion

    32. Will Behaviour Starting things Organising things Leading Problem solving Decision making Concentrating Confronting Distortions Rivalry Stubbornness Selfishness Powerlessness Bullying Apathy Restlessness

    33. Programming - Reasons Provide a medium or context Provide a structured experience Directly influence group/individual Achieve a particular result Modify undesirable behaviour Facilitate development of group

    34. Programming - Mistakes not based on need not linked to objectives unrealistic too rigid above/below capacities separates members breaches defenses too early repetitious end in itself fails to create consciousness fails to review dynamic inertia

    35. Categorising activities An activity that is done for its own sake > intrinsic pleasure Designed to generate interaction Designed as a rehearsal Activity is alternative, to something which might occur through open discussion Activity is an accelerating device Activity is designed to encourage empathy

    36. Questions to consider in selecting activity Purpose? - what problem/issue? What experiences will it generates? What consequences - the same for all? Could the consequences be damaging? can I modify/forestall these? Does device allow for participant choice? What preparation or follow up is needed? What happens if device goes wrong?

    37. Why games? Fun Relationship building Literacy & numeracy Increase creativity and imagination Improve communication skills Cope with tension & stressful situations Break down barriers Identify problems & find solutions Built trust, sensitivity & understanding Develop self-awareness Build confidence

    38. Problems in groups Problem or symptom or response? Problem or opportunity? Problem for whom? Problem with members? Problem behaviour or problem role? Problem with whole group? Problem with conditions/context? Problem with leadership/co-leadership?

    39. Responding to problems direct - say what is, invite sharing of feelings and resolution indirect - change programme, e.g. devise exercise modelling - e.g. use of self disclosure by leader/leaders psychological - interpreting what is happening

    40. Force field analysis

    41. Power and oppression Social work takes place with the most disadvantaged Some groups are specifically aimed at empowerment Groups reflect the society from which they are drawn complete with prejudices etc Groupworkers must address both this plus their own anti-oppressive practice

    42. Issues to be addressed in anti-oppressive groupwork practice Group composition and structure Mixed or Single identity. Issue of isolation Location Programme Ground rules Worker preparation Being, saying and doing

    43. Establishing an anti-oppressive climate Communicating recognition and awareness Being comfortable in taking about oppressions Relating to co-worker Being prepared to challenge agency policies and attitudes Listening and validating Being open about power issues in the group Being open about own behaviour Acknowledging the reality of social conditions Recognising and responding to cultural diversity

    44. Anti-discriminatory groupwork Consider your objectives consider your process consider your content consider the recipients of your service consider your values

    45. Recording reporting to management and colleagues reporting to keyworkers feedback to group members developing own skills post group review training purposes research and evaluation

    46. Methods of Recording Video Audio tape Written summary Diagrams Group members record Check lists - sentence completion

    47. Endings Review what has happened Evaluate achievements End relationships Prepare for post group stage Ending rituals

    48. Surviving groupwork (adapted from Benson, 1987) Get your feet wet Avoid crucifixions - you cant be all things to all people Dont push the river upstream - go with the flow Wait till the mud settles Dont beat yourself up most mistakes are recoverable, most problems reoccur - giving you another chance Cultivate goodwill Make up your own rules; if it works use it, if it doesnt use that too