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Harkness and Groupwork Approach to Teaching Secondary Mathematics Max Sterelyukhin BSc, BEd, PDP, MSc Candidate, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC
What is Harkness Teaching? • Developed and implemented at Phillips Exeter Academy, New Hampshire, USA • Edward Harkness’s gift: “What I have in mind is a classroom where students could sit around a table with a teacher who would talk with them and instruct them by a sort of tutorial or conference method, where each student would feel encouraged to speak up. This would be a real revolution in methods.” http://www.jpost.com/HttpHandlers/ShowImage.ashx?ID=149840 https://www.exeter.edu/media/content/harkness_Flash_harkness3_rdax_422x294_75.jpg
Our Initiative https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZUZOlwJ2TqA
Overall Project • (1) Pre-Treatment Stage: students are given the survey (instrument) • (2) Treatment Stage: student-centered classes are administrated; Harkness classroom environment established, classes are recorded on video. • (3) Post-Treatment Stage: students are given the survey again to see any significant differences in engagement and mathematics aptitude; videos are analysed and transcribed, artifacts collected (notebooks, work, projects, etc).
Discussion Analysis: Interactive Flow Chart Model Legend - Math related utterance, directed to the table or person - Non-Math related utterance, directed to the table or person - Gaze to the table or person - Teacher position at the table - Student position at the table - Tablet position at the table
Conclusions thus far… • Surveys show a significant improvement of the following: • - Personal Attitude towards Mathematics • - Engagement • - Social Attitude • - Test/Exam Anxiety • Discussion Analysis has identified a key element of an engaged discussion: tension and disagreement • Further and deeper analysis of the discussions via Interactive Flow Chart will allow to identify the when, how, who, and why of engaged discussions
Selected References • Bennett, C. A. (2009). " It’s Hard Getting Kids to Talk About Math ": Helping New Teachers Improve Mathematical Discourse”, 32(3). • Fiori, N., & Boaler, J. (2003). What Discussions Teach Us About Mathematical Understanding: Exploring and Assessing Students’ Mathematical Work in Classroomsitle, (2001). • Mcgraw, R. H. (2002). Facilitating Whole-Class Discussion in Secondary Mathematics Classrooms. • Smith, M , Stein, M K. (2011). Five Practices for Orchestrating Productive Mathematics Discussions. NCTM. • Weber, K., Maher, C., Powell, A., & Lee, H. S. (2008). Learning opportunities from group discussions: warrants become the objects of debate. (Array, Ed.)Educational Studies in Mathematics, 68(3), 247–261. doi:10.1007/s10649-008-9114-8 • Qi-Ping Kong, Ngai-Ying, Chi-Chung Lam. (2003). Student Engagement in Mathematics: Development of Instrument and Validation of Construct. Mathematics Education Research Journal. Vol 15, No. 1, 4-23. • Peter Liljedahl and Chiara Andrà. (2013) Student’s Gazes: New Insights into Student Interactions.
Contact Info Max Sterelyukhin Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Twitter: @msterely Web: www.maxsterelyukhin.com