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Exchange Rates. Exchange Rates. An exchange rate is the price of one currency in terms of another. It indicates how many units of one currency can be bought with a single unit of another currency.

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exchange rates2
Exchange Rates
  • An exchange rate is the price of one currency in terms of another.
    • It indicates how many units of one currency can be bought with a single unit of another currency.
  • Exchange rates are important because exports, imports and all international financial transactions are affected by the prices at which currencies exchange for one another.
exchange rates and trade
Exchange Rates and Trade
  • Currency Appreciation
    • Increase in the value of the currency
      • When a country’s currency appreciates, its exports become more expensive and its imports become less expensive.
  • Currency Depreciation
    • Decrease in the value of the currency
      • When a country’s currency depreciates, its exports become less expensive and its imports become more expensive.
exchange rates and capital mobility
Exchange Rates and Capital Mobility
  • Currency appreciation
    • Increase in the value of the currency
      • When the dollar appreciates, U.S. assets become more attractive relative to foreign assets.
  • Currency depreciation
    • Decrease in the value of the currency
      • When the dollar depreciates, U.S. assets become less attractive relative to foreign assets.
exchange rates long run
Exchange Rates: Long Run
  • Factors that affect exchange rates in the long run include:
    • Relative Price Levels/Purchasing Power Parity
    • Trade Barriers
    • Preferences for Domestic Versus Foreign Goods
    • Productivity
relative price levels and exchange rates
Relative Price Levels and Exchange Rates
  • Purchasing power parity (PPP) says that when the prices charged for essentially the same goods in different countries diverge, exchange rates will move in the opposite direction and equalize the effective prices between the two countries.
determination of exchange rates ppp
Determination of Exchange Rates: PPP
  • Purchasing power parity says that in the long run exchange rates adjust to reflect changes in the price levels of two countries.
    • If one country’s price level rises relative to another, its currency tends to depreciate.
    • If one country’s price level falls relative to another, its currency tends to appreciate.
ppp simple example
PPP: Simple Example
  • Assume that the USA and Canada produce identical bushels of wheat and that the exchange rate is $1 Canadian for $1 U.S.
  • Let the price of wheat in Canada rise to $3/bushel while the price of wheat in the U.S. remains $2.50/bushel.
  • What will happen?
purchasing power parity example
Purchasing Power Parity: Example
  • Canadians will buy U.S. wheat. In order to do this, they must first buy U.S. dollars.
    • The supply of Canadian dollars in the global marketplace increases.
    • The demand for U.S. dollars in the global marketplace increases
      • The Canadian dollar depreciates and the U.S dollar appreciates.
purchasing power parity example10
Purchasing Power Parity: Example
  • The price of U.S. wheat increases for Canadians for two reasons.
    • The dollar has appreciated.
    • The increase in demand for U.S. wheat pushes its price towards $3.00.
  • The decrease in demand for Canadian wheat pushes down its price down from $3.00 towards $2.50.
ppp simple example11
PPP: Simple Example
  • Over time these effects combine to bring about a single price for U.S. and Canadian wheat.
  • Conclusion:
    • A rise in the price level puts downward pressure on a currency.
    • A fall in the price level puts upward pressure on a currency.
why ppp works poorly in the short run
Why PPP Works Poorly in the Short Run
  • Assumptions:
    • All goods are identical in both countries.
    • All goods and services are traded across borders.
    • Both countries have similar levels of productivity.
    • Consumers do not prefer one country’s goods over another’s.
    • No tariffs or quotas.
trade barriers and exchange rates
Trade Barriers and Exchange Rates
  • Barriers to free trade, increase the demand for domestic goods, causing the domestic currency to tend to appreciate.
  • If the rising value of the currency does not decrease foreign demand, the domestic currency appreciates because the supply of that currency decreases in world markets.
preferences and exchange rates
Preferences and Exchange Rates
  • Increased demand for a country’s exports causes its currency to appreciate.
  • If the rising value of the currency does not decrease foreign demand, the demand for the domestic currency in world markets increases and its value rises.
preferences and exchange rates15
Preferences and Exchange Rates
  • Decreased demand for a country’s exports causes its currency to depreciate.
  • If the falling value of the currency does not increase foreign demand, the demand for the domestic currency in world markets decreases and its value falls.
productivity and exchange rates
Productivity and Exchange Rates
  • As a country becomes more productive than other countries, costs fall, permitting that country to sell at lower prices.
  • The decrease in price increases demand for the country’s goods and services, causing the value of the country’s currency to rise.
productivity and exchange rates17
Productivity and Exchange Rates
  • As a country becomes less productive than other countries, costs rise, forcing that country to sell at higher prices.
  • The increase in price decreases demand for the country’s goods and services, causing the value of the country’s currency to fall.
exchange rates short run
Exchange Rates: Short Run
  • The modern asset market approach to explain exchange rate determination emphasizes financial flows.
    • Financial transactions in the U.S. are over 25 times greater than the amount of exports and imports.
  • In the short run, decisions to hold domestic or foreign assets play a more important role than trade.
expected return
Expected Return
  • Demand for dollar deposits vis a vis foreign deposits depends on the relative expected return on the deposits.
    • A higher expected return on dollar deposits relative to foreign deposits results in a higher demand for dollar deposits.
    • A higher expected return on foreign deposits relativeto dollar deposits results in a higher demand for foreign deposits.
expected return foreign perspective
Expected Return: Foreign Perspective
  • The return on dollar deposits received by a foreigner depends on the interest rate and the exchange rate between dollars and the foreign currency because….
    • Interest earned on U.S. deposits is denominated in dollars and must be converted into the foreign currency.
expected return stable currencies
Expected Return: Stable Currencies
  • Assume you are French and you have bought a U.S. asset that pays 10% interest.
    • If the exchange rate between the U.S. and France does not change, you receive the full 10%.
expected return changing currency values
Expected Return: Changing Currency Values
  • Assume you are French and you have bought a U.S. asset that pays 10% interest.
  • Also assume that the exchange rate between France and the U.S. changes.
  • You will not receive 10%.
    • You may receive more than 10% or less than 10%.
expected return dollar appreciation
Expected Return: Dollar Appreciation
  • Assume you are French and you own a U.S. asset that pays 10%.
  • Assume also that the dollar has appreciated relative to the euro.
    • This means that the dollar buyseuros.
    • This means that you earnthan 10%.
expected return dollar depreciation
Expected Return: Dollar Depreciation
  • Assume you are French and you own a U.S. asset that pays 10%.
  • Assume also that the dollar has depreciated relative to the euro.
    • This means that the dollar buyseuros.
    • This means that you earnthan 10%.
expected return the math
Expected Return: The Math
  • The formula for the expected return on dollar deposits (RET$) in terms of euros is:
    • RET$ = i$+ (E$t+1 –E$t)/E$t
      • The expected return equals the interest return denominated in dollars (i$ ) plus the expected dollar appreciation.
        • E$t+1 is the expected value of the dollar in the next period.
        • E$t is the expected value of the dollar today.
expected return french assets
Expected Return: French Assets
  • If you are French, the expected return on French deposits is the French interest rate.
  • There is no exchange rate exposure.
relative expected return
Relative Expected Return
  • If you are French, the relative expected returnon dollar deposits is the difference between the expected return on dollar deposits and the expected return on euro deposits.
  • To invest profitably, we must compare the two.
relative expected return the math
Relative Expected Return: The Math
  • The relative expected return on dollar deposits equals:
    • Relative RET$ = i$ –if + (E$t+1 –E$t)/E$t
      • The relative expected return equals the interest return denominated in dollars minus the interest on French deposits plus the dollar appreciation.
expected return american perspective
Expected Return: American Perspective
  • The return on euro deposits received by an American depends on the French interest rate and the exchange rate between dollars and the euro because….
    • Interest earned on French deposits is denominated in euros and must be converted into dollars.
expected return the math30
Expected Return: The Math
  • The formula for the expected return on French deposits (RETF) in terms of dollars is:
    • RETF = if – (E$t+1 –E$t)/E$t
      • The expected return equals the interest return denominated in euros (if ) plus the appreciation in the euro.
      • Euro appreciation is the negative of dollar appreciation so we subtract dollar appreciation from our return.
expected return u s assets
Expected Return: U.S. Assets
  • The expected return on U.S. deposits for Americans is the U.S. interest rate because there is no exchange rate exposure.
relative expected return32
Relative Expected Return
  • If you are American, the relative expected returnon French deposits in terms of dollars is the difference between the expected return on dollar deposits and the expected return on euro deposits.
  • To invest profitably, we must compare the two.
relative expected return the math33
Relative Expected Return: The Math
  • The relative expected return on French deposits equals:
    • Relative RETF = i$ –(if – (E$t+1 – E$t)/E$t)
    • = i$ – if + (E$t+1 – E$t)/E$t
      • The relative expected return equals the interest return denominated in dollars minus the interest on French deposits plus the dollar appreciation.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The relative expected return on dollar deposits is the same whether it is calculated form the foreign point of view or the domestic point of view.
    • When the dollar is expected to appreciate, Americans and foreigners prefer to hold dollar denominated deposits.
interest rate parity

Interest Rate Parity

Understanding Exchange Rates in the Short Run

explaining interest rates with interest rate parity
Explaining Interest Rates with Interest Rate Parity
  • Interest rate parity says that the higher domestic real rates of interest are relative to foreign real interest rates, the higher will be the value of the domestic currency, other things remaining the same.
interest rate parity assumptions
Interest Rate Parity: Assumptions
  • Foreign and U.S. deposits have similar risk and liquidity characteristics.
  • There are few impediments to capital mobility.
    • Foreigners can easily purchase American assets and Americans can easily purchase foreign assets.
  • Therefore, foreign and American deposits are perfect substitutes.
interest rate parity investor behavior
Interest Rate Parity: Investor Behavior
  • When capital is mobile and bank deposits are perfect substitutes….
    • If the expected return on dollar deposits is above foreign deposits, everyone will want to hold dollar deposits.
    • If the expected return on foreign deposits is above American deposits, everyone will want to hold foreign deposits.
interest rate parity condition
Interest Rate Parity Condition
  • For existing supplies of both dollar and foreign deposits to be held, it must be true that there is no difference in their expected returns.
    • The relative expected return must equal zero.
      • Relative RET$ = i$ – if + (Et+1 – Et)/ Et = 0 or

i$ = if – (Et+1– Et)/ Et

interest rate parity condition implications
Interest Rate Parity Condition: Implications
  • If the domestic rate is above the foreign interest rate, positive expected appreciation of the foreign currency is expected.
    • The expected appreciation compensates for the lower foreign interest rate.
      • i$ = if – (Et+1– Et)/ Et
      • 10% = 8% – x
interest rate parity condition implications41
Interest Rate Parity Condition: Implications
  • If the domestic rate is below the foreign interest rate, positive expected appreciation of the domestic currency is expected.
    • The expected appreciation compensatesfor the lower domestic interest rate.
      • i$ = if – (Et+1– Et)/ Et
      • 8% = 10% – x
foreign exchange market model
Foreign Exchange Market Model

Et

RETD

RETF

Et is the exchange rate = euros/dollars.

RETD is the return on dollar deposits in

the U.S.

RETF is the expected return on euro

deposits in terms of dollars.

RET$ is the expected return on

deposits in terms of dollars.

1.05

1.00

.95

0

5% 10% 15%

RET$

foreign exchange market model derivation
Foreign Exchange Market Model: Derivation

Et

RETD

RETF

Let if = 10%, Et = .95 and Et+1= 1.00

RETF = 0.10 – (1 – .95)/.95

= 0.10 –0.052 = 0.048

We plot the combination .95 and 4.8% at point 1.

1.05

1.00

.95

1

0

5% 10% 15%

RET$

foreign exchange market model derivation44
Foreign Exchange Market Model: Derivation

Et

RETD

RETF

Let if = 10%, Et = 1.00 and Et+1 = 1.00.

RETF = 0.10 – (1 –1)/1

= 0.10 –0 = 0.10

We plot the combination 1 and 10% at

point 2.

1.05

1.00

.95

2

1

0

5% 10% 15%

RET$

foreign exchange market model derivation45
Foreign Exchange Market Model: Derivation

Et

RETD

RETF

3

Let if = 10%, Et = 1.05 and Et+1 = 1.00.

RETF = 0.10 – (1 – 1.05)/1.05

= 0.10 – (–0.048) = 0.148

We plot the combination 1.05 and 14.8% at point 3.

1.05

1.00

.95

2

1

0

RET$

5% 10% 15%

foreign exchange market model46
Foreign Exchange Market Model

RETF

Et

RETD

1.05

1.00

.95

Equilibrium occurs where the return

on foreign assets equals the return

on domestic assets.

0

RET$

5% 10% 15%

stability of equilibrium
Stability of Equilibrium
  • At equilibrium there are either no forces causing change or there are equal off-setting forces.
  • If the equilibrium is stable, disequilibrium positions cannot exist indefinitely.
    • Forces in the model will tend to eliminate either the excess supply or excess demand.
foreign exchange market model48
Foreign Exchange Market Model

RETF

Et

RETD

Equilibrium occurs where the return

on foreign assets equals the return

on domestic assets.

If the return on foreign assets exceeds

the return on domestic assets, the

currency will depreciate.

1.05

1.00

0

RET$

5% 10% 15%

equilibrium
Equilibrium
  • Let the exchange rate be 1.05
    • The expected return on euro deposits is now greater than the return on dollar deposits.
    • Holders of dollar deposits now will try to sell them and buy euro deposits, but no one will want them at the exchange rate of 1.05.
    • The excess supply of dollars will cause the dollar to fall.
    • The dollar falls until equilibrium is reached at the exchange rate of 1.
foreign exchange market model50
Foreign Exchange Market Model

RETF

Et

RETD

Equilibrium occurs where the return

on foreign assets equals the return

on domestic assets.

If the return on foreign assets is less than

the return on domestic assets, the

currency will appreciate.

1.00

.95

0

RET$

5% 10% 15%

equilibrium51
Equilibrium
  • Let the exchange rate be .95
    • The expected return on dollar deposits is now greater than the return on euro deposits.
    • Holders of euro deposits now will try to sell them and buy dollar deposits, but no one will want them at the exchange rate of .95.
    • The excess demand for dollars will cause the dollar to rise.
    • The dollar rises until equilibrium is reached at the exchange rate of 1.00.
changes in exchange rates
Changes in Exchange Rates
  • To explain how exchange rates change over time, we have to understand the factors that shift the expected-return schedules for domestic dollar deposits and foreign deposits.
shifting the expected return schedule for foreign deposits
Shifting the Expected-Return Schedule for Foreign Deposits

RETF3

RETF1

Et

RETD1

Other things remaining the same, a

change in i f changes the expected

return on foreign deposits.

If i f rises, at any given exchange rate,

RETF is higher so we shift the RETF

schedule to the right.

If i f falls, at any given exchange rate,

RETF is lower so we shift the RETF

schedule to the left.

RETF2

0

RET$

shifting the expected return schedule for foreign deposits54
Shifting the Expected-Return Schedule for Foreign Deposits
  • The RETF schedule shifts when there is a change in the foreign interest rate.
    • An increase in the foreign interest rate shifts the RETF schedule to the right and causes the domestic currency to depreciate.
    • A decrease in the foreign interest rate shifts the RETF schedule to the left and causes the domestic currency to appreciate.
foreign interest rate rises
Foreign Interest Rate Rises

An increase in the expected return on

foreign deposits causes the domestic

currency to depreciate.

The higher rates of return on foreign

financial assets attract U.S. buyers.

In order to buy foreign financial assets,

U.S. investors must first buy foreign

currency.

The supply of dollars increases

in the global marketplace and

the dollar depreciates.

Et

RETD

RETF1

RETF2

E1

E2

1

2

0

RET$

shifting the expected return schedule for foreign deposits56
Shifting the Expected-Return Schedule for Foreign Deposits

RETF2

RETF1

Et

RETD1

Other things remaining the same, a

change in Et+1 changes the expected

appreciation of the dollar.

If Et+1 rises, the euro is expected to fall

and RETF will be lower. We shift the

RETF schedule to the left.

If Et+1 falls, the euro is expected to rise

and RETF will be higher. We shift

the RETF schedule to the right.

RETF3

0

RET$

shifting the expected return schedule for foreign deposits57
Shifting the Expected-Return Schedule for Foreign Deposits
  • The RETF schedule shifts when there is a change in the expected future exchange rate.
    • A rise in the expected future exchange rate shifts the RETF schedule to the left and causes the domestic currency to appreciate.
    • A fall in the expected future exchange rate shifts the RETF schedule to the right and causes the domestic currency to depreciate.
the expected future exchange rate rises
The Expected Future Exchange Rate Rises

An increase in the expected future exchange

rate causes the domestic currency to

appreciate.

The higher expected future exchange rate

increases foreign demand for U.S. assets.

In order to buy U.S. financial assets,

foreign investors must first buy U.S.currency.

The supply of foreign currency increases

in the global marketplace and

the dollar appreciates.

Et

RETD

RETF2

RETF1

E2

E1

2

1

0

RET$

shifting the expected return schedule for domestic deposits
Shifting the Expected-Return Schedule for Domestic Deposits

Et

RETD1

RETD2

RETD3

RETF

A rise in the domestic interest rate

shifts RETD to the right and causes

an appreciation of the domestic

currency.

A fall in the domestic interest rate

shifts RETD to the left and causes

a depreciation of the domestic

currency.

0

RET$

real rate of interest rises
Real Rate of Interest Rises

A rise in the real domestic rate of

interest causes the currency to

appreciate.

The higher rates of return on U.S.

financial assets attract foreign

buyers. In order to buy U.S.

financial assets, foreigners must

first buy dollars.

The demand for dollars increases

in the global marketplace and

the dollar appreciates.

Et

RETD1

RETD2

RETF

E2

E1

2

1

0

RET$

inflation and the exchange rate
Inflation and the Exchange Rate

Et

RETD

RETD2

RETF1

RETF2

An increase in inflation causes the

currency to depreciate.

If nominal interest rates rise because of

an increase in the inflation premium,

the rise in expected domestic inflation

leads to a declinein the expected

appreciation of the dollar.

E1

E2

1

2

0

RET$

money supply and the exchange rate
Money Supply and the Exchange Rate

Et

RETD2

RETD1

RETF1

RETF2

An increase in the money supply can cause the

domestic currency to depreciate, if it causes an

increase in the domestic price level that leads

to a lower expected future exchange rate.

The decline in the expected appreciation

of the dollar raises the expected return of

foreign deposits.

In the short run, domestic interest rates fall to

RETD2 and the exchange rate falls to E2.

1

E1

E3

3

E2

2

0

RET$

exchange rate overshooting
Exchange Rate Overshooting
  • In the long run, according to the theory of monetary neutrality, a onetime percentage rise in the money supply is matched by an equal onetime percentage rise in the price level, leaving the real money supply and all other economic variables unchanged.
exchange rate overshooting64
Exchange Rate Overshooting
  • The quantity theory of money states:

MV = PY where

    • M = Money Supply
    • P = Price Level
    • V = Velocity of Money
    • Y = Aggregate Income
      • If V and Y are constant, then any change in M is matched by an equal change in P.
exchange rate overshooting65
Exchange Rate Overshooting
  • Monetary neutrality says that in the long run, the rise in the money supply would not lead to a change in RETD.
    • A shift in RETD2 back to RETD1 in the long run causes the exchange rate to rise to E3.
  • The phenomenon where the exchange rate falls by more in the short run than it does in the long run in known as exchange rate overshooting.
volatility of exchange rates
Volatility of Exchange Rates
  • Because expected appreciation of the domestic currency affects the expected return on foreign deposits, expectations about the price level, inflation, trade barriers, productivity, import demand, export demand, and the money supply play important roles in determining the exchange rate.
productivity and the exchange rate
Productivity and the Exchange Rate

Et

RETD1

RETF2

RETF1

An increase in productivity makes a

country more competitive and increases demand for the country’s currency.

As Et+1 rises, RETF shifts to the left and the exchange rate rises from E1 to E2.

2

E2

E1

1

0

RET$

the expected domestic price level and the exchange rate
The Expected Domestic Price Level and the Exchange Rate

Et

RETD1

RETF1

RETF2

A decline in the expected appreciation

of the dollar raises the expected return of

foreign deposits.

RETF increases and shifts to the right.

The exchange rate falls from E1 to E2.

1

E1

E2

2

0

RET$

expected trade barriers and the exchange rate
Expected Trade Barriers and the Exchange Rate

Et

RETD1

RETF2

RETF1

Expectations of rising trade barriers cause

people to expect the domestic currency to

rise.

As Et+1 rises, RETF decreases and shifts

to the left.

The exchange rate rises from E1 to E2.

2

E2

E1

1

0

RET$

expected import demand and the exchange rate
Expected Import Demand and the Exchange Rate

Et

RETD1

RETF1

RETF2

An increase in expected import demand

means the supply of the domestic currency

will increase relative to demand.

This expected increase in supply in the

world marketplace causes Et+1 to fall.

A fall in Et+1 causes RETF to increase and

shift to the right.

The exchange rate falls from E1 to E2.

1

E1

E2

2

0

RET$

expected export demand and the exchange rate
Expected Export Demand and the Exchange Rate

Et

RETD1

RETF1

RETF2

An increase in expected export demand

means the demand for domestic currency

will increase relative to supply.

This expected increase in demand in

the world marketplace causes Et+1 to rise.

A rise in Et+1 causes RETF to decrease and

shift to the left.

The exchange rate rises from E1 to E2.

2

E2

E1

1

0

RET$

volatility of exchange rates72
Volatility of Exchange Rates
  • Exchange rates are volatile because
    • Exchange rates are determined by expectations about domestic interest rates, foreign interest rates, inflation, and many other variables.
    • When expectations change about any of these variables, exchange rates are affected.