chapter 8 the biomechanics of the upper extremities l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 8: The Biomechanics of the Upper Extremities PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 8: The Biomechanics of the Upper Extremities

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 17

Chapter 8: The Biomechanics of the Upper Extremities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 702 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 8: The Biomechanics of the Upper Extremities. Basic Biomechanics, 4 th edition Susan J. Hall Presentation Created by TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC Humboldt State University. Objectives. Explain how anatomical structure affects movement capabilities of lower extremity articulations.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 8: The Biomechanics of the Upper Extremities' - JasminFlorian


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 8 the biomechanics of the upper extremities

Chapter 8:The Biomechanics of the Upper Extremities

Basic Biomechanics, 4th edition

Susan J. Hall

Presentation Created by

TK Koesterer, Ph.D., ATC

Humboldt State University

objectives
Objectives
  • Explain how anatomical structure affects movement capabilities of lower extremity articulations.
  • Identify factors influencing the relative mobility and stability of lower extremity articulations.
  • Explain the ways in which the lower extremity is adapted to its weightbearing function.
  • Identify muscles that are active during specific lower extremity movements.
  • Describe the biomechanical contributions to common injuries of the lower extremity.
structure of the hip
Structure of the Hip
  • Anterior reinforcement from iliofemoral ligament and pubofemoral ligament
  • Posterior reinforcement from ischiofemoral ligament.
  • Iliopsoas Bursa
  • Deep Trochanteric Bursa
  • Femur major weightbearing bone
    • Longest, largest and strongest in body.
movements at the hip
Movements at the Hip
  • Pelvic Girdle
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Medial and Lateral Rotation of Femur
  • Horizontal Abduction and Adduction
loads on the hip
Loads on the Hip
  • During swing phase of walking:
    • Compression on hip approx. same as body weight (due to muscle tension)
  • Increases with hard-soled shoes
  • Increases with gait increases (both support and swing phase)
  • Body weight, impact forces translated upward thru skeleton from feet and muscle tension contribute to compressive load on hip.
common injuries of the hip
Common Injuries of the Hip
  • Fractures
    • Usually of femoral neck, a serious injury usually occurring in elderly with osteoporosis
  • Contusions
    • Usually in anterior aspect of thigh, during contact sports
  • Strains
    • Usually to hamstring during sprinting or overstriding
structure of the knee
Structure of the Knee
  • A large synovial joint with three articulations within joint capsule.
  • Tibiofemoral Joint
  • Menisci
  • Ligaments: tibial and fibular collateral, anterior and posterior cruciate, iliotibial band
  • Patellofemoral Joint
  • Joint Capsule and Bursae
movements at the knee
Movements at the Knee
  • Flexion and Extension
    • Popliteus
    • Quadriceps
  • Rotation and Passive Abduction and Adduction
  • Patellofemoral Joint Motion
loads on knee
Loads on Knee
  • Forces at tibiofemoral Joint
    • Loaded with shear and compression forces during daily activities.
    • Medial tibial plateau
  • Forces at Patellofemoral Joint
    • With a squat, reaction force is 7.6 times BW on this joint.
      • Beneficial to rehab of cruciate ligament or patellofemoral surgery
common injuries of the knee and lower leg
Common Injuries of the Knee and Lower Leg
  • ACL injuries
  • PCL injuries
  • MCL injuries
  • Prophylactic Knee Bracing
  • Meniscus Injuries
  • Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome
  • Breaststroker’s Knee
  • Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome
  • Shin Splints
structure of the ankle
Structure of the Ankle
  • Movements of the ankle:
    • Dorsiflexion
      • Tibialis anterior
      • Extensor digitorum longus
      • Peroneus tertius
    • Plantar Flexion:
      • Two heads of gastrocnemius
      • Soleus
structure of the foot
Structure of the Foot
  • Subtalar Joint
  • Tarsometatarsal and Intermetatarsal Joints
  • Metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal Joints
  • Plantar Arches
muscles of the foot
Muscles of the Foot
  • Extrinsic muscles cross ankle
  • Intrinsic muscles have both attachments within the foot.
  • Toe Flexion and Extension
  • Inversion and Eversion
  • Pronation and Supination
loads on the foot
Loads on the Foot
  • Structures of foot anatomically linked to evenly distribute load over whole foot.
  • 50% of BW distributed through subtalar joint to calcaneous
    • Remaining 50% transmitted across metatarsal heads.
  • Architecture of food affects loading
    • Flat arch: reduced forefoot load
    • High arch: increased forefoot load
common injuries of the ankle and foot
Common Injuries of the Ankle and Foot
  • Ankle Sprains
    • Inversion sprain much more common than eversion sprains
  • Overuse Injuries
    • Tendonitis
    • Excessive pronation
    • Stress Fractures
common injuries of the ankle and foot16
Common Injuries of the Ankle and Foot
  • Alignment Anomalies of Foot:
    • Varus
    • Valgus
  • Injuries Related to High and Low Arch Structures
summary
Summary
  • Lower extremity well adapted to function of weight bearing and locomotion
  • The hip is a typical ball and socket joint
  • The knee is a large, complex joint composed of two side-by-side condyloid articulations
  • The ankle includes articulations of the tibia and fibula with the talus.
  • Like the hand, the foot is composed of many small bone their articulations