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## Chapter 4 AC-to-DC Converters

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**Chapter 4AC-to-DC Converters**“Introduction to Modern Power Electronics”, 2nd Ed., John Wiley 2010 by Andrzej M. Trzynadlowski**Three-pulse diode rectifier**Fig. 4.1 Chapter 4**Example current path and voltage distribution in a**three-pulse diode rectifier Fig. 4.2 Chapter 4**Waveforms of output voltage and current in a three-pulse**diode rectifier (R load) Fig. 4.3 Chapter 4**Waveform of input current in a three-pulse diode rectifier**(R load) Fig. 4.4 Chapter 4**Six-pulse diode rectifier**Fig. 4.5 Chapter 4**Example current path and voltage distribution in a six-pulse**diode rectifier Fig. 4.6 Chapter 4**Phasor diagram of voltages in a three-phase ac line, and the**conduction area Fig. 4.7 Chapter 4**Waveforms of output voltage and current in a six-pulse diode**rectifier in the continuous conduction mode (RLE load) Fig. 4.8 Chapter 4**Twelve-pulse diode rectifier**Fig. 4.9 Chapter 4**Areas of conduction modes of a six-pulse diode rectifier**Fig. 4.10 Chapter 4**Waveforms of output voltage and current in a six-pulse diode**rectifier in the discontinuous conduction mode (RLE load) Fig. 4.11 Chapter 4**Waveform of input current in a six-pulse diode rectifier**(assuming an ideal dc output current) Fig. 4.12 Chapter 4**Spectrum of input current in a six-pulse diode rectifier**Fig. 4.13 Chapter 4**Input filter (harmonic trap) for a three-phase rectifier**Fig. 4.14 Chapter 4**Phase-controlled (SCR) six-pulse rectifier**Fig. 4.15 Chapter 4**Firing pulses in a phase-controlled six-pulse rectifier**Fig. 4.16 Chapter 4**Waveforms of output voltage and current in a**phase-controlled six-pulse rectifier in the continuous conduction mode (, RLE load) Fig. 4.17 Chapter 4**Control characteristic of a phase-controlled six-pulse**rectifier in the continuous conduction mode Fig. 4.18 Chapter 4**Rectifier in the inverter mode**Fig. 4.19 Chapter 4**Waveforms of output voltage and current in a**phase-controlled six-pulse rectifier in the continuous conduction mode Fig. 4.20 Chapter 4**Area of feasible firing angles**Fig. 4.21 Chapter 4**Conduction mode areas of a phase-controlled six-pulse**rectifier Fig. 4.22 Chapter 4**Waveforms of output voltage and current in a**phase-controlled six-pulse rectifier in the discontinuous conduction mode: (a) rectifier operation(b) inverter operation Fig. 4.23 Chapter 4**Waveform of input current in a phase-controlled six-pulse**rectifier (ideal dc output current assumed) Fig. 4.24 Chapter 4**Equivalent circuit of a phase-controlled six-pulse rectifier**supplied from a practical dc voltage source Fig. 4.25 Chapter 4**Waveforms of voltage and current in a phase-controlled**six-pulse rectifier during commutation Fig. 4.26 Chapter 4**Waveforms of output voltage and current in a**phase-controlled six-pulse rectifier supplied from a source with inductance: (a) rectifier mode, (b) inverter mode Fig. 4.27 Chapter 4**Notched waveform of input voltage in a phase-controlled**six-pulse rectifier supplied from a source with inductance Fig. 4.28 Chapter 4**Plane of operation, operating area, and operating quadrants**of a rectifier Fig. 4.29 Chapter 4**Controlled rectifier with a cross-switch**Fig. 4.30 Chapter 4**Antiparallel connection of two controlled rectifiers**Fig. 4.31 Chapter 4**Six-pulse circulating current-free dual converter**Fig. 4.32 Chapter 4**Six-pulse circulating current-conducting dual converter**supplied from two separate ac sources Fig. 4.33 Chapter 4**Waveforms of output voltages of constituent rectifiers of a**circulating current-conducting dual converter (, ) Fig. 4.34 Chapter 4**Waveforms of differential output voltage and circulating**current in a circulating current-conducting dual converter () Fig. 4.35 Chapter 4**Waveforms of differential output voltage and circulating**current in a circulating current-conducting dual converter () Fig. 4.36 Chapter 4**Six-pulse circulating current-conducting dual converter**supplied from a single ac source Fig. 4.37 Chapter 4**Single-phase PWM rectifier with an LC input filter**Fig. 4.38 Chapter 4**Switching pattern of a hypothetical four-state PWM converter**Fig. 4.39 Chapter 4**Stator of a three-phase electric ac machine**Fig. 4.40 Chapter 4**Generation of a space vector of the stator MMFs in a**three-phase electric ac machine: (a) phasor diagram of stator currents, (b) vectors of MMFs Fig. 4.41 Chapter 4**Space vector of stator MMFs and its components**Fig. 4.42 Chapter 4**Synthesis of a rotating space vector from stationary vectors**and Fig. 4.43 Chapter 4**Voltage space vector in the stationary and rotating**reference frames Fig. 4.44 Chapter 4**Current-type PWM rectifier**Fig. 4.45 Chapter 4**Reference current vector in the vector space of input**currents of a current-type PWM rectifier Fig. 4.46 Chapter 4**Example waveforms of switching variables in one switching**cycle of a current-type PWM rectifier Fig. 4.47 Chapter 4**Control scheme of a current-type PWM rectifier**Fig. 4.48 Chapter 4**Waveforms of output voltage and current in a current-type**PWM rectifier: (a) m = 0.75, (b) m = 0.35 (fsw/fo = 24, RLE load) Fig. 4.49 Chapter 4