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Carbon Compounds In Cells. Chapter 3. Organic Compounds. Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids . Carbon’s Bonding Behavior . Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8

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organic compounds
Organic Compounds

Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon

Carbohydrates

Lipids

Proteins

Nucleic Acids

carbon s bonding behavior
Carbon’s Bonding Behavior
  • Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8
  • Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to four atoms
bonding arrangements
Bonding Arrangements
  • Carbon atoms can form chains or rings
  • Other atoms project from the carbon backbone
carbohydates
CARBOHYDATES
  • Basic Formula = Cn(H2O)n
  • One water for each Carbon, hence carbohydrate
two simple sugars
Two Simple Sugars

glucose

fructose

disaccharides
Disaccharides

glucose

fructose

+ H2O

sucrose

polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
  • Straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers
  • Most common are composed entirely of glucose
    • Cellulose
    • Starch (such as amylose)
    • Glycogen
cellulose starch
Cellulose & Starch
  • Differ in bonding patterns between monomers
  • Cellulose - tough, indigestible, structural material in plants
  • Starch - easily digested, storage form in plants
glycogen
Glycogen
  • Sugar storage form in animals
  • Large stores in muscle and liver cells
  • When blood sugar decreases, liver cells degrade glycogen, release glucose
lipids
Lipids
  • Most include fatty acids
    • Fats
    • Phospholipids
    • Waxes
  • Sterols and their derivatives have no fatty acids
  • Tend to be insoluble in water
fatty acids
Fatty Acids
  • Carboxyl group (-COOH) at one end
  • Carbon backbone (up to 36 C atoms)
    • Saturated - Single bonds between carbons
    • Unsaturated - One or more double bonds
three fatty acids

stearic acid

oleic acid

linolenic acid

Three Fatty Acids
slide15
Fats
  • Fatty acid(s) attached to glycerol
  • Triglycerides are most common
phospholipids
Phospholipids
  • Main components of cell membranes
sterols and derivatives
Sterols and Derivatives
  • No fatty acids
  • Rigid backbone of four fused-together carbon rings
  • Cholesterol - most common type in animals
proteins
PROTEINS
  • Key in Cellular Structure & Function
  • Key Functional Role as Enzymes Controlling all Chemical Reactions
  • Amino Acid Building Blocks
amino acid structure
Amino Acid Structure

carboxyl

group

amino

group

R group

protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis
  • Protein is a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
  • Peptide bond = Primary Bonding
    • Type of covalent bond
    • Links amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of next
primary structure protein shape
Primary Structure & Protein Shape
  • Primary structure influences shape in two main ways:
    • Allows hydrogen bonds to form between different amino acids along length of chain
    • Puts R groups in positions that allow them to interact
secondary structure
Secondary Structure
  • Internal bond angles give rise to coiled or extended pattern
  • Hydrogen bonds form between different parts of polypeptide chain
  • Helix or pleated sheet
tertiary structure
Tertiary Structure

heme group

Folding as a result of interactions between R groups

coiled and twisted polypeptide chain of one globin molecule

quaternary structure
Quaternary Structure

Some proteins are made up of more than one polypeptide chain

Hemoglobin

denaturation
Denaturation
  • Disruption of three-dimensional shape
  • Breakage of weak bonds
  • Causes of denaturation:
    • pH
    • Temperature
  • Destroying protein shape disrupts function
a permanent wave
A Permanent Wave

different

bridges

form

bridges

broken

hair wrapped

around cuticles

nucleic acids
NUCLEIC ACIDS
  • DNA = Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid
  • RNA = Ribonucleic Acid
  • Nucleotide Building Blocks
nucleotide structure
Nucleotide Structure
  • Sugar
    • Ribose or deoxyribose
  • At least one phosphate group
  • Base
    • Nitrogen-containing
    • Single or double ring structure
slide30

ADENINE

(a base)

THYMINE

phosphate group

sugar (deoxyribose)

GUANINE

CYTOSINE

Fig. 3.19, p. 46

nucleotide functions
Nucleotide Functions
  • Energy carriers
  • Coenzymes
  • Chemical messengers
  • Building blocks for nucleic acids
nucleic acids32
Nucleic Acids

Adenine

  • Composed of nucleotides
  • Single- or double-stranded
  • Sugar-phosphate backbone

Cytosine

slide33
DNA
  • Double-stranded
  • Consists of four types of nucleotides
  • A bound to T
  • C bound to G
slide34
RNA
  • Ribose instead of Deoxyribose
  • Usually single strands
  • Four types of nucleotides
  • Unlike DNA, contains the base uracil in place of thymine