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Carbon Compounds In Cells

Carbon Compounds In Cells

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Carbon Compounds In Cells

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  1. Carbon Compounds In Cells Chapter 3

  2. Organic Compounds Hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids

  3. Carbon’s Bonding Behavior • Outer shell of carbon has 4 electrons; can hold 8 • Each carbon atom can form covalent bonds with up to four atoms

  4. Bonding Arrangements • Carbon atoms can form chains or rings • Other atoms project from the carbon backbone

  5. CARBOHYDATES • Basic Formula = Cn(H2O)n • One water for each Carbon, hence carbohydrate

  6. Two Simple Sugars glucose fructose

  7. Disaccharides glucose fructose + H2O sucrose

  8. Polysaccharides • Straight or branched chains of many sugar monomers • Most common are composed entirely of glucose • Cellulose • Starch (such as amylose) • Glycogen

  9. Cellulose & Starch • Differ in bonding patterns between monomers • Cellulose - tough, indigestible, structural material in plants • Starch - easily digested, storage form in plants

  10. Cellulose and Starch

  11. Glycogen • Sugar storage form in animals • Large stores in muscle and liver cells • When blood sugar decreases, liver cells degrade glycogen, release glucose

  12. Lipids • Most include fatty acids • Fats • Phospholipids • Waxes • Sterols and their derivatives have no fatty acids • Tend to be insoluble in water

  13. Fatty Acids • Carboxyl group (-COOH) at one end • Carbon backbone (up to 36 C atoms) • Saturated - Single bonds between carbons • Unsaturated - One or more double bonds

  14. stearic acid oleic acid linolenic acid Three Fatty Acids

  15. Fats • Fatty acid(s) attached to glycerol • Triglycerides are most common

  16. Phospholipids • Main components of cell membranes

  17. Sterols and Derivatives • No fatty acids • Rigid backbone of four fused-together carbon rings • Cholesterol - most common type in animals

  18. PROTEINS • Key in Cellular Structure & Function • Key Functional Role as Enzymes Controlling all Chemical Reactions • Amino Acid Building Blocks

  19. Amino Acid Structure carboxyl group amino group R group

  20. Protein Synthesis • Protein is a chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds • Peptide bond = Primary Bonding • Type of covalent bond • Links amino group of one amino acid with carboxyl group of next

  21. Primary Structure & Protein Shape • Primary structure influences shape in two main ways: • Allows hydrogen bonds to form between different amino acids along length of chain • Puts R groups in positions that allow them to interact

  22. Secondary Structure • Internal bond angles give rise to coiled or extended pattern • Hydrogen bonds form between different parts of polypeptide chain • Helix or pleated sheet

  23. Examples of Secondary Structure

  24. Tertiary Structure heme group Folding as a result of interactions between R groups coiled and twisted polypeptide chain of one globin molecule

  25. Quaternary Structure Some proteins are made up of more than one polypeptide chain Hemoglobin

  26. Denaturation • Disruption of three-dimensional shape • Breakage of weak bonds • Causes of denaturation: • pH • Temperature • Destroying protein shape disrupts function

  27. A Permanent Wave different bridges form bridges broken hair wrapped around cuticles

  28. NUCLEIC ACIDS • DNA = Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid • RNA = Ribonucleic Acid • Nucleotide Building Blocks

  29. Nucleotide Structure • Sugar • Ribose or deoxyribose • At least one phosphate group • Base • Nitrogen-containing • Single or double ring structure

  30. ADENINE (a base) THYMINE phosphate group sugar (deoxyribose) GUANINE CYTOSINE Fig. 3.19, p. 46

  31. Nucleotide Functions • Energy carriers • Coenzymes • Chemical messengers • Building blocks for nucleic acids

  32. Nucleic Acids Adenine • Composed of nucleotides • Single- or double-stranded • Sugar-phosphate backbone Cytosine

  33. DNA • Double-stranded • Consists of four types of nucleotides • A bound to T • C bound to G

  34. RNA • Ribose instead of Deoxyribose • Usually single strands • Four types of nucleotides • Unlike DNA, contains the base uracil in place of thymine